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The Expanded Dictionary
of Metaphysical Healthcare

Unnaturalistic Methods: A

© 2000 Jack Raso, M.S., R.D.


abhyanga: Ayurvedic "rejuvenating cure" that is a secondary part of panchakarma. Abhyanga is a "very complete massage" with a medicated ("herbalized") oil. Practitioners supposedly gear the medicated oil to one's "constitutional type" (see "Ayurvedic nutrition").

abjad: Sufi system of numerology.

aboukra: Purportedly, an ancient Egyptian "healing art" that strengthens and balances the body's "natural energy fields" and "meridians."

absent healing (absentee healing, distance healing, distant healing, remote healing, teleotherapeutics): 1. Alleged treatment of a patient not in the practitioner's vicinity through magic, meditation, prayer, "spirit doctors," or telepathy. 2. A form of faith healing that supposedly involves the projection of "positive healing energy."

ACCESS (Access Energy Transformation): "Energy technique" that supposedly works with the "creative force" to free it and connect it to the "Light" ("us"). Allegedly, Novian, a "Being of Light," channeled the method to Gary Douglas through the Russian monk Grigori Efimovich Rasputin (1872?-1916). ACCESS theory posits: (a) 32 "Bars," points on the head that are a means of allowing the flow of bodily "energies"; (b) a "Soul"; (c) "Implants," electrical devices (e.g., a "False Immune System") inserted in another lifetime and attached "electrically" to the Soul's "energy"; and (d) "Entities," disembodied beings or "thought forms." Purportedly, ACCESS removes "energetic blocks" at cellular and "etheric" levels and enables one to reclaim "awareness as an eternal being."

acro-sage: A "combination of massage, yoga, and gymnastics," according to an edition of the TV magazine Strange Universe UPN broadcast on November 29, 1996. Former circus performer Benjamin Marantz created the method. Apparently, it is a purported way to "reverse aging."

active imagery: Form of imagery (see below) that involves concentrating on a preselected image to control a particular symptom.

Actualism (Actualism Lightwork, agni yoga, Fire Yoga, lightwork): Stepwise form of yoga developed over a quarter-century by Russell Paul Schofield, a clairvoyant with doctorates in divinity, naturopathy, and psychology. It involves "the laying-on of lighted hands." Its theory posits a human "divine mind," whose "scope" is infinite, and ki (a human life force).

Actualism bodywork: Component of Actualism supposedly designed to assist awakening the body and its consciousness to the "indwelling Creator" and to the love of this alleged entity. It includes "nerve work," which purportedly helps to deepen one's enjoyment of "life-energies."

acu-ball pressure self-treatment: Form of self-applied acupressure characterized by the use of soft balls of solid rubber.

acu-diet (Dr. Bahr's acu-diet): Subject of Dr. Bahr's Acu-Diet: Weight Loss at Your Fingertips (William Morrow & Company, Inc.), by Munich-born Frank R. Bahr, M.D. The acu-diet is a combination of diets, exercises, and self-applied acupressure. According to acu-diet theory, one can influence the "compulsive eating center" in one's brain simply by massaging specific "acupressure points."

acu-meridian energy transmission bodywork: Component of the Er Mei Qi Gong Therapy External Energy Diagnosis and Treatment system.

acupoint bloodletting: Form of bloodletting characterized by puncturing acupoints with needles. Its common usage reportedly has various purposes, including activation of blood, clearance of channels (meridians), and reduction of hotness.

acu-point therapy: Mode of counseling psychology based partly on acupuncture theory and promoted by Mitchell J. Rabin, M.A.

Acu-Powder (Acupowder treatment): One of the "clinic services" offered by the School of Classical Taoist Herbology, in Manhattan (New York City). It involves application of a "remarkable" herbal powder to acupoints.

acupressure (G-jo [GEE-joh]): Any treatment that allegedly involves the surface stimulation of acupoints digitally, manually, or with tools held in the hand. Practitioners may be called "acupressurists." "G-jo" is Chinese for "first aid."

acupressure massage: Acupressure in the form of a massage (An Mo). Apparently, it is the equivalent of amma. Acupressure massage purportedly is usable to promote the flow of Qi (chi) through the "meridian system."

acupressure touch: Gentle form of acupressure.

acupuncture (acupuncture therapy, Zhenjiu): The practice of pricking or otherwise puncturing a living organism to relieve or eliminate disease, pain, or lethargy in that organism. Acupuncture typically involves inserting needles of various shapes into the skin with the purported aim of stimulating acupoints, which supposedly enable direct influence of the flow of Qi (chi). Practitioners may be called "acupuncturists" or "acupuncture therapists." Most forms of acupuncture are unnaturalistic. Neuro-electric acupuncture and New Scientific ElectroAcupuncture--and, apparently, osteopuncture--are naturalistic.

acupuncture anesthesia (acupuncture analgesia, acupuncture assisted anesthesia, anesthetic acupuncture): Use of acupuncture to relieve pain during surgery wherein the patient is conscious, either in conjunction with or instead of analgesics or chemical anesthetics. It was introduced in 1958 in the People's Republic of China.

acupuncture cupping method: Combination of acupuncture and cupping.

acupuncture energetics (core acupuncture energetics): Practice of acupuncture with the intention of treating acupoints so that they "resonate" with "archaic pathways" of the "bodymind." It involves acupuncture imaging.

acupuncture imaging: Part of acupuncture energetics wherein the practitioner simultaneously palpates an acupuncture "zone" and describes it to the client in "energetic" terms. Joint focusing on "affected" zones supposedly enables channeling of the client's "true healing intention" to "appropriate" zones, which purportedly effects "bodymind integration."

 "Acupuncture Osteopathy": A purported "meridian acupuncture" approach to releasing myofascial "body constitutions," advanced by author Mark D. Seem, Ph.D.

Acuscope therapy (Electro-Acuscope therapy): Form of energy medicine (vibrational medicine) that allegedly speeds healing of virtually any injury. Its centerpiece is the Acuscope (also called the Electro-Acuscope(TM)), a computerized device that purportedly balances the body's electrical current.

Acu-Stop 2000: "Acupressure method" promoted by mail in 1993. It was a purported sure-fire way to lose at least thirty pounds, fast, and without exercise, pills, or much willpower. Acu-Stop 2000 involved keeping an "acupressure-like device" of the same name in one's right ear for a few minutes daily. Allegedly, stimulation of this "ear piece": (a) stimulates "points" in the body that regulate appetite and (b) "suppresses their activity."

Acutherapy: Form of touch therapy developed by Jim Foster and taught by the Myotherapy Institute Research Center, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Foster reportedly discovered that gentle touching of specific areas of the body removed pain almost magically. Acutherapy purportedly uses the body's "reflex system" and "energy flows."

acu-yoga: Combination of self-applied acupressure and a group of yogic postures and stretches. It supposedly activates the points and "energy pathways" of acupuncture.

advanced dowsing: Radiesthesia without an "instrument" (e.g., a pendulum).

Advanced Energy Healing (Robert Jaffe Advanced Energy Healing): Alleged "journey" into "higher realms" of understanding whereby one supposedly connects with one's "divine self." Taught by Robert T. Jaffe, M.D., D.D., the method encompasses aura analysis, the Awareness Release Technique, clairvoyant diagnosis, "magnetic/radiatory healing," "soul merging," and "third eye awakening."

Advanced Ingham Method(TM): Comprehensive form of the Original Ingham Method.

advanced Kum Nye: Apparently, an alleged means of promoting confidence, power, and endurance through stimulation and transformation of bodily and mental "energies."

advanced pranic healing: Subject of a "serious reference work" of the same name, written by chemical engineer and "Grandmaster Pranic Healer" Choa Kok Sui. The method includes chakral pranic healing and color pranic healing.

advanced Rolfing: Form of Rolfing purportedly geared to clients who have undergone the basic Rolfing series of ten sessions.

African holistic health (African holistics, African holistic science, African medicine): Subject of African Holistic Health, whose fourth edition was published in 1993. The paperback's author, herbalist and massage therapist Dr. Llaila [la-ee-la] O. Afrika, developed this ethnic variation of naturopathy. Its purported design is to treat the physical, mental, and spiritual causes of "dis-ease."

Agape Quest Program: Form of kinesiology (see below) that encompasses more than twenty "modalities," including acupressure and, apparently, Bach flower therapy and/or flower essence therapy. The program allegedly "unlock[s] blockages."

Agartha Personal Life Balancing Program (Agartha Program): Thirty-five-day audiotape program created by author Meredith Lady Young. Its purported design is to reduce stress and promote "complete health." Each of the seven "harmonic" tapes combines sounds reportedly "developed" to alter "energy currents" within specific chakras. These sounds supposedly "massage" chakras and thereby improve the flow of life force through the body.

Agni Dhatu Therapy(c) (Agni Dhatu, Samadhi Yoga): "Hands-on" form of spiritual healing that purportedly enables the conscious to experience the "Super-Conscious" by lulling and healing the subconscious. Its theory posits "energies of bliss," "energies of joy," and "Psychic Energy Channels." Agni Dhatu Therapy includes "OMEGA Pattern Clearing work." Practitioner Cherry N. Manning has defined "agni dhatu" as "experiencing the limitlessness of your inner fires."

aikido: Spiritual discipline and self-defense method that uses grappling, throws, and "nonresistance" to debilitate opponents. The name "aikido" combines three Japanese words: ai ("union" or "harmony"), ki ("breath," "spirit" or "life force"), and do ("way"). Proponents translate aikido as "the way of unifying ki" or "the way of harmony with the spirit of the universe (or universal energy)." Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969), a Japanese farmer and master martial artist, founded aikido sometime between 1922 and 1931, supposedly after a divine revelation. Ueshiba claimed supernatural power. (His surname is also spelled "Oyeshiba" and "Uyeshiba.") Practitioners may be called "aikidoists."

air pumping cupping method: Form of cupping that requires a suction device, such as an "air pumping cup."

Akabane: Apparently, a form of acupuncture developed by Kobei Akabane. Akabane points are the terminal points of "meridians."

AK/NOT program (Ferreri program): Combination of the Ferreri Technique and the Neural Organization Technique (NOT). "AK" stands for "applied kinesiology."

Alchemia: Form of channeling that allegedly involves activating "Universal Fifth Dimensional Energy."

Alchemia Breathwork: System that allegedly transforms "karmic situations" and, through "focused use" of the "Breath" and the life force, frees "suppressed energy." It includes Alchemia heart breath.

Alchemia(R) heart breath: Component of Alchemia Breathwork that practitioners reportedly use as an initial step toward discovering "energy blockages."

Alchemical Bodywork: Combination of Alchemical Hypnotherapy and various forms of bodywork. Its postulate is that "emotion" can become "stuck" in the body and is locatable.

Alchemical Hypnotherapy (Alchemical work): "Powerful transformative process" developed by David Quigley. Its purported design is to assist clients in working with their "Inner Guides" ("archetypes"). It apparently borrows from Ericksonian Hypnosis, Gestalt, Jungian psychology, NLP, psychosynthesis, regression therapy, shamanism, Transpersonal Hypnotherapy, and transpersonal psychology. Its theory posits a collective unconscious, "past-life memories" therein, "etheric plane communication," an "inner child," an "inner mate," and karma. Alchemical Hypnotherapy appears identical to, a variation of, or the successor to Transformational Hypnotherapy.

Alchemical Synergy(R): Form of hypnotherapy whose purported goal is to develop the "optimum potential" of individuals by connecting them with their respective "inner master."

Alchemical weight management: Purported means of working with the subconscious causes of "weight release" and body image. It includes Emotional Clearing and inner child work.

Alexander Technique® (Alexander method, F.M. Alexander Technique™): A method for changing stereotyped response patterns by the inhibition of certain postural sets.” Teachers of the Alexander Technique claim to ‘re-educate’ the kinaesthetic sense so that their pupils become more aware of unnecessary muscular tension during their everyday movements. According to its theory, our human mechanism is superbly adapted to the environment of evolutionary adaptation, but is not well adapted to the demands of modern, sedentary, civilised life. Alexander claimed that maintaining a particular ‘use’ of the head, neck, and back leads to re-claiming the optimum overall physical functioning that is our evolutionary heritage. Frederick Matthias Alexander (1869-1955), an Australian Shakespearean actor, developed the method at the turn of the century and set out his ideas in four books Although his original purpose was to assist voice projection, Alexander concluded that faulty posture was responsible for diverse symptoms. He posited that habitual unbalanced movement affects the functioning of the entire body, implying that postures entail behavior patterns and that bad postural habits can distort one's personality. The Alexander Technique is not a therapy or a religion and teachers do not claim to ‘treat’ or ‘cure.’ A teacher will guide a student’s movement in order to offer heightened sensory feedback, with the ultimate aim of increasing a student’s self-awareness of balance and undue muscular tension. [This entry was written by Lee Warren and posted on 3/25/07)

Alliance method ("traditional" Reiki, Usui System of Natural Healing; called "Hayashi" in Japan): The Usui System of the Reiki Alliance; a form of Reiki training that traces to Dr. Chujiro Hayashi, a retired naval officer who became a student of Mikao Usui. Hayashi theory posits three levels of "Reiki energy."

Alphabiotic Alignment/Unification Process: A "hands-on" procedure of Alphabiotics that proponents have described as a "necessary crutch." According to its theory, those who experience discomfort the first time they undergo "the Process" especially need to undergo it.

Alphabiotics: Brainchild of Dr. V.B. Chrane, who began practicing it in the 1920s near Abilene, Texas. His son, Dr. Virgil Chrane, Jr., founded Alphabiotics as a "profession" on December 28, 1971. Its theory posits a "lesser self," a "Greater Self," and "Life energy." Practitioners are called "alphabioticists." (See "Alphabiotic Alignment/Unification Process.")

Alpha Calm Therapy: Combination of guided imagery and Ericksonian Hypnosis. It purportedly can cause a freeing of "energy" from the subconscious.

alternative dentistry: Form of dentistry that encompasses hypnosis and self-applied acupressure and, apparently, aromatherapy. (See "holistic dentistry.")

alternative medicine (alt-care, alternative care, alternative-complementary healthcare [ACH], alternative healing, alternative healing therapies, alternative health, alternative therapeutics, alternative therapies, alt-med, complementary and alternative medicine [CAM], complementary health care, complementary medicine [CM], complementary practices, extended therapeutics, Fringe Medicine, holistic healing, holistic health, holistic medicine, natural healing, natural health, natural medicine, New Age medicine, nonproven therapy [NPT], nonstandard medicine, unconventional medicine, unconventional therapies, unconventional therapy, unorthodox healing, unorthodox therapies, wholistic medicine): Broadly, any or all health-related methods and practices (a) for which scientific evidence concerning safety and efficacy is lacking or largely contradictory, and (b) are more popular, or likelier to be more popular, among non­health-professionals than among practitioners of mainstream biomedicine. Related expressions include "innovative medicine," "integrative medicine," "mind-body medicine," "New Medicine," and "planet medicine."

alternative nutrition (alternative nutritional treatments, alternative nutrition strategies, alternative nutrition therapies): An ill-defined group of methods that apparently encompasses Chinese herbal medicine, the Chinese System of Food Cures, and nutrient pharmaco-therapy--administration of specific micronutrients in pharmacologic doses.

Alternative 12 Steps: Nontheistic derivative of the Twelve Steps, expounded by Martha Cleveland, Ph.D., and "Arlys G." in The Alternative 12 Steps: A Secular Guide To Recovery (1992). Three of their "Steps" affirm "spiritual resources" or "spiritual energy."

Ama Deus: Reportedly, a system of healing, magic, and divination used for millennia by Guarani "shamen" in Brazil. The Guaranis are a South American Indian people.

Amanae transformational bodywork: Purportedly, a unique "Multi-dimensional healing process" that helps in "shifting out" trauma "held" in the body.

American macrobiotics: Approach to macrobiotics developed by Tonia Porter-Hugus.

amma (anma, General Massage, Pu Tong An Mo): General form of Chinese Qigong massage. Its theory posits 361 "energy points" (tsubos). An means press, mo means rub, and an mo means massage. The purported goals of amma include relaxation, improvement of blood circulation, and prevention of illness.

AMMA Therapy(R): A derivative of amma and the alleged "grandparent of massage." Korean-born Tina Sohn developed AMMA Therapy in the 1960s. It involves bodywork, diet, vitamin supplements, and herbs. Supposedly, AMMA Therapy: uses "powerful energetic points" discovered by Sohn; treats the "physical body," "bio-energy," and the emotions; and frees the mind and spirit.

Amplified Energy Therapy: Form of energy healing (see "vibrational medicine") promoted by Richard Gordon. Its postulate is that people can learn to maneuver their "life-force energy" toward following the body's "innate intelligence."

ancient Christian magic: Group of amulet recommendations, recipes, and spells conveyed in a book of the same name. Apparently, the basis of this brand of magic is "ritual power."

Angel Chiropractic Care: "Wholistic approach" promoted by Dr. Steven B. Angel. It encompasses applied kinesiology, Bach flower therapy, biomagnetic therapy, chiropractic "techniques," CranioSacral Therapy, nutritional counseling, reflexology, and vibrational medicine.

angelic attunement: Apparently, an alleged means of "clearing energy blockages" in the "physical body" and of restructuring DNA.

angelic healing: Apparently, any form of channeling, intercessory prayer, meditation, or visualization that purportedly involves the therapeutic assistance of angels. Its postulate is that angels invisibly guide, protect, and heal people.

Annette Martin training: Program that borrows from the Edgar Cayce tradition (see "The Cayce Approach to Health and Healing"). Its focus is clairvoyant diagnosis.

anthroposophy: 1. The mystic, spiritualistic cult that Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), an Austro-Hungarian, founded in 1919 and that centers on his teachings. According to anthroposophy, truth is subjective. Steiner was the author of Investigations in Occultism Showing Its Practical Value in Daily Life (1920) and Philosophy of Spiritual Activity (1922). 2. Human wisdom or knowledge of human nature or of the nature of humankind.

anthroposophical medicine (anthroposophically-extended medicine, anthroposophical therapeutics): The medical phase of anthroposophy; a purported "extension of practical medicine." It encompasses curative eurythmy. According to anthroposophy, the human organism consists of a physical body, a vegetal "etheric" body, an animalistic "astral" or "soul" body, and an "ego" or "spirit." Anthroposophical "remedies" supposedly smooth the interaction of these alleged constituents.

apitherapy (bee sting therapy, bee venom therapy): Administration of honeybee stings to treat a wide variety of illnesses. Apitherapy allegedly "unleashes" the body's "healing power." According to one theory, the "energetics" of bees and their venom is key to the method.

apple diet (apple-cleansing regimen, apple-diet cleansing routine, apple-diet regimen, apple-diet therapy): Alleged purificatory "reducing aid" inspired by the "readings" of "religious seer" Edgar Cayce (see "The Cayce Approach to Health and Healing"). The three-day regimen includes enemas and restricts food intake to raw apples (especially Delicious and Jonathan, and peeled unless they are organic), black coffee, and olive oil. Cayce recommended the diet for numerous ailments, including anemia, debilitation, and "subluxations."

applied kinesiology (AK, kinesiology): Elaborate system of ostensible diagnosis and treatment whose centerpiece is muscle testing (see below). Detroit chiropractor George J. Goodheart, Jr., developed the first AK procedure (the origin and insertion technique) in 1964. He theorized that muscle groups share "energy pathways" with internal organs and that, therefore, every organ dysfunction is discoverable in a related muscle. Testing muscles for relative strength and tone supposedly taps the body's "innate intelligence" and enables practitioners to detect specific dysfunctions. AK encompasses: "clinical nutrition"; CranioSacral Therapy; "dietary management"; homeopathy, including classical homeopathy; meridian therapy (see "Ching Lo"), especially acupressure and acupuncture; and reflexology.

Ap-Bong Method: A mode of hand acupuncture that combines acupressure and acupuncture. It involves the fixing of small, thornlike pieces of metal on acupuncture points.

aqua acupuncture (aqua acupuncture therapy, aquapuncture, the injection therapy): Form of acupuncture that involves the hypodermic injection of substances (e.g., vitamin preparations or liquid herbal extracts) at acupuncture points, purportedly to "stimulate" them by pressure from the injected substance.

archetypal psychology: Form of psychotherapy akin to theotherapy and advanced by Jungian analyst Jean Shinoda Bolen. Archetypal psychology focuses on myths as keys to self-knowledge.

Arhatic YogaSM (Arhatic Yoga System): Syncretic form of yoga developed by Choa Kok Sui, an exponent of Kriyashakti, Pranic Healing, and pranic psychotherapy. Its purported design is to activate and align chakras, safely awaken "the 'sacred fires' of the body," and increase longevity. Its theory posits "golden energy," kundalini, and physical and spiritual "bodies." The Center for Pranic Healing, in New York City, defines "arhatic" as "a highly integrated human being equipped with very developed intuition, advanced mental powers, highly refined emotions and engaged in a great contribution to the Divine Plan."

Arica(R): Spiritual movement founded by Oscar Ichazo in Arica, a city of northern Chile. It includes bodywork and various breathing and meditational "techniques." The Arica School was founded in New York in 1971.

Aroma Behavior Conditioning (ABC): Combination of aromatherapy and NLP. The Myotherapy Institute Research Center (see "Acutherapy") offered a program in ABC but discontinued it before early June 1996.

aroma-spa therapy: Subject of a textbook of the same name (Anessence Inc., 1996), by massage therapist Anne Roebuck, of Toronto, Canada. Apparently, aroma-spa therapy is the practice of aromatherapy as a part of spa therapy, which Roebuck describes in the introduction as "therapeutic face and body treatments at a spa location."

aromatherapy (aromatic medicine, conventional aromatherapy, holistic aromatherapy): "Branch" of herbal medicine that centers on using fragrant substances, particularly oily plant extracts, to alter mood or to improve individuals' health or appearance. The alleged benefits of aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of "emotions from past experiences." Although aromatherapy has ancient roots, proponents did not call it "aromatherapy" before the 1930s. The expression "aromatherapy" is an umbrella used by the cosmetics, fragrance, and alternative-medicine industries. It derives from the French word "aromatherapie," coined by Rene Maurice Gattefosse, a French chemist whose book of the same name was published in 1928. Reportedly, the development of modern aromatherapy began with Gattefosse conveniently plunging his badly burned hand into a vat of lavender oil after a lab explosion and noticing how well it healed. French homeopaths Dr. and Mme. Maury revived modern aromatherapy in the 1960s.

In the aromatherapy industry the odorous substances of choice are essential oils (oils that are volatile, aromatic, and flammable) from flowers, fruits, grasses, leaves, roots, and wood resins. Manners of use of such oils include sniffing, ingestion, addition to bathwater, and application to the skin (typically with massage). One of aromatherapy's postulates is that essential oils have a "spiritual dimension" and can restore "balance" and "harmony" both to one's body and to one's life. One of its principles, the doctrine of signatures, holds that a plant's visible and olfactory characteristics reveal its "secret" qualities. For example, because the configuration of the violet suggests shyness, aromatherapists hold that its scent induces calmness and modesty. Some proponents have characterized essential oils as the soul or spirit of plants.

aroma-tology: Form of aromatherapy that includes using essential oils to "re-form" character and to enhance spirituality. Prof. William Arnold-Taylor, an aromatherapist, coined the name "aroma-tology" in 1981.

aromics(TM) (aromics(TM) program): Combination of aromatherapy and NLP promoted in 1993 by Bill McMahan of Santa Ana, California. According to its theory, both smell and imagination ("mind power") are "senses," and one can "anchor" certain aromas to the "positive results" on which one focuses (e.g., weight control).

Artainment(TM): Component of The Human Ecology Program. It involves listening to New Age music on audiocassettes, compact discs, and/or music videos. The Artainment video titled "Freedom," an alleged supraliminal ("supersensory") experience, is the "foundation" of The Human Ecology Program. According to Artainment, music is one's "eternal friend."

ASAT(TM) C.O.R.E. Counseling (ASAT C.O.R.E., C.O.R.E., C.O.R.E. Counseling): Purported unique "approach to facilitation" promoted by the American Society of Alternative Therapists (ASAT(TM)), in Rockport, Massachusetts. The method allegedly heals people through "the ultimate means of all causation." Its theory posits an unlimited human capacity for "conscious creation of life." "C.O.R.E." stands for "Conscious, Ownership, Retrieval/Release and Engage." In 1996 or 1997, ASAT C.O.R.E. apparently replaced ASAT Transformational Counseling (see "Transformational Counseling").

Asian medicine: Group of "Eastern" methods that includes acupuncture, panchakarma, and shiatsu.

astanga yoga (Ashtanga Yoga, Raja Yoga): Putative prototype of hatha yoga. It involves ujaya breathing (see "ujjayi"), which purportedly helps to purify the cells and organs of the body. The Sanskrit word "raja" means king.

Astara's healing science: Form of spiritual healing advanced by Astara, Inc., a neo-Christian, interfaith church founded in 1951 by Drs. Earlyne C. Chaney and Robert G. Chaney. Earlyne Chaney is the author of Initiation in the Great Pyramid, Lost Empire of the Gods, and at least six other books. Her academic titles include "Doctor of Divinity," "Doctor of Philosophy," and "Doctor of Humanities in Spiritual and Psychic Sciences." Robert Chaney is the author of The Power of Your Own Medicine (Astara, 1995) and at least ten other books. Astara's healing science apparently encompasses absent healing, crystal healing, mental visualizations, and "scientific prayer." Its theory posits "etheric contacts" and a "White Light" with "magnetic energies."

Aston Movement: Mode of bodywork developed by Judith Aston, the founder of Aston-Patterning. One of its postulates is that bodily "patterns"--ways of moving, areas of ease, and areas of discomfort--reveal everyone's history of attitude, injury, and physical activity.

Aston-Patterning(R): Form of "movement reeducation" developed by Judith Aston. Its purported design is to teach people how to live optimally in their bodies. One of its postulates is that the body wants to move in an asymmetrical spiral. With one hand, practitioners, called "Aston-Patterners," thus move connective tissue.

astrological counseling: "Psycho-spiritual" mode of psychotherapy practiced by author Laurie A. Baum, M.S.W., C.S.W. Its basis is astrology.

astrological diagnosis: Purported means of determining one's constitutional tendencies and "potential destiny." Its major considerations include the time and place of birth, the site of one's upbringing, and current astrological and astronomic "conditions."

astrologic medicine (astral healing, astrological healing, astromedicine, medical astrology, medicinal astrology): System based on cosmobiology--an alleged science whose postulate is that specific mental and physical conditions correspond to the relative positions of celestial bodies. Astrologic medicine involves horoscopic astrology and the "zodiacal man" doctrine. The postulate of horoscopic astrology--also called "genethliacal astrology," "horoscopy," "natal astrology," "popular astrology," and "sun sign astrology"--is that the relationship between the positions of planets and stars and the moment of one's birth determines lifelong personality. According to the "zodiacal man" doctrine, each of the twelve signs ("houses") of the zodiac--constellations named Aries, Taurus, etc.--governs a different part of the human body. Proponents associate these zodiacal signs ("sun signs") with bodily parts (e.g., organs) and systems and with predisposition to disease in different bodily parts. Certain "planetary configurations" supposedly can trigger disease in susceptible persons. Some proponents further posit a correlation of (a) sun signs and particular herbs, and (b) sun signs and the twelve "cell salts" of the Schuessler biochemic system of medicine. Astrologic medicine includes astrodiagnosis (see "astrological diagnosis"), prognosis, selection and timing of treatments (especially homeopathic "remedies"), and alleged preventive medicine.

astrology (star-gazing): Alleged means of obtaining information that can provide "individualized insights" regarding emotional, professional, and health matters. Its postulate is that stars and planets influence humans and earthly occurrences by their aspects and relative positions. (See "astrologic medicine.")

astrotherapy (psychological astrology): Subject of Essays in Psychological Astrology, by Glenn Perry, Ph.D. Astrotherapy is a purported blend of astrology and modern psychology. One of its postulates is that astrology can reveal "god-like powers" that allegedly reside in all humans. Apparently, astrotherapy is also called "humanistic astrology." Astrotherapy and astro-psychology (see "psychological astrology") may be identical.

Atlantean Healing Ray Training: Instruction in an alleged prototypal healing system (including "Healing at a Distance"), provided by Michael E. Morgan. Morgan is a trance channeler for Yokar, "the Atlantean Scientist-priest." Atlantean Healing Ray Training theory posits "the Life Force," "spiritual energies," and "subtle bodies."

attitudinal healing: Purported regulation or maintenance of physical, mental, and/or spiritual health by taking up "proper" mental attitudes or a particular worldview. Attitudinal healing encompasses Buddhist psychology, Christian Science, A Course in Miracles, transpersonal psychology, and yogic meditation.

attunement: Lifestyle and manual "vibrational healing art" (see "vibrational medicine").

auditing (pastoral counseling, processing): Psychotherapeutic technique introduced in 1950 by L. (Lafayette) Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) in his book Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. The procedure is central to Dianetics and may include use of an "E-meter" ("electropsychometer"; also called the "Hubbard Electrometer"), a quasi lie detector. Practitioners are called "auditors."

aura analysis (aura reading, auric diagnosis): Supposed direct or indirect examination of the "vital energy" that allegedly envelops each human. Proponents claim that this "aura" is perceptible to clairvoyants or psychics. "Nonpsychics" purportedly can analyze it through Kirlian photography or a Kilner screen. Dr. Walter J. Kilner (1847-1920) of St. Thomas's Hospital, in London, invented this screen: two plates of glass, an eighth of an inch apart, containing an alcoholic solution of a dye (usually carmine or a coal-tar dye). "Auric" colors supposedly reveal the personal traits of the subject, such as impressionableness and "spiritual arrogance." Proponents also associate "auric" colors with glands, organs, organ systems, and psychological states such as anger and boredom.

aura and vibrational diagnosis: Mode of Natural and Macrobiotic Medicine that is a form of aura analysis.

aura balancing (aura cleansing, aura clearing, aura healing, auric healing): Multiform method characterized by purported treatment of the "energy field" ("aura") around a person's head or body.

Aura Imaging Photography (Aura Imaging): Variation of Kirlian photography promoted by Johannes R. Fisslinger, the German author of Aura Imaging Photography, Aura Mastery, and Aura Visions, and by "researcher" Guy Coggins, author of Aura Awareness: What Your Aura Says About You. Aura Imaging is a purported means of reading the "true character" of individuals. It involves using an "aura camera" that can produce instant photos. The color, shape, and size of the "auric image" allegedly can indicate specific physical, emotional, and spiritual conditions. Aura Imaging theory posits chakras ("energy centers" that correspond to endocrine glands) and "vital energy."

Aura-Soma (aurasomatherapy, Aura-Soma therapy): "Holistic soul therapy" that Vicky Wall, a clairvoyant born in London, developed in the mid-1980s. It is a variation of color therapy and a form of aura balancing and chakra healing. Wall authored The Miracle of Colour Healing: Aura-Soma Therapy as the Mirror of the Soul, (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1993). Thorsons Publishers issued its second edition in 2001.

auric massage technique: Manual adjunct to angelic healing that is a form of aura cleansing (aura balancing). Its apparent postulate is that health accompanies bodily "harmony," which results from the restoration of "harmony" to the "higher bodies" that allegedly surround the body.

auricular acupuncture (auricular acupuncture therapy): Alleged stimulation of acupoints on the auricle (the outer portion of the ear). Practitioners may base their choice of points on clinical experience, "modern medicine," the site of the disease, or the TCM theories of "Organs" and meridians.

auricular analgesia (auricular analgesic acupuncture, auricular acupuncture analgesia): Form of Chinese auricular therapy whose apparent design is to alleviate pain in fully conscious patients.

auricular diagnosis: Component of Chinese auricular therapy.

auricular magnetic therapy (magneto-therapy, magnet therapy): Component of Chinese auricular therapy that involves taping magnetic balls or pellets to auricular acupoints.

auricular massage: Component of Chinese auricular therapy that involves digitally pinching, pressing, or rotating all or part of the ear.

auricular moxibustion: Component of Chinese auricular therapy whose forms include (a) burnt match moxibustion, in which the practitioner taps one or two auricular acupoints rapidly with the head of a burnt match; (b) indirect moxibustion, a form of indirect moxabustion; (c) thread incense moxibustion, a variation of direct moxabustion; and (d) warm needle moxibustion, wherein the practitioner heats an inserted needle with a match or lighter.

auricular point injection: Component of Chinese auricular therapy that is a form of aqua acupuncture.

auricular point laser-stimulating method (laser needling): Component of Chinese auricular therapy that is a form of laserpuncture.

auricular reflexology: Mode of reflexology whose focus is the ear. Dr. P.F.M. Nogier of France "discovered" the method in 1967.

auriculotherapy (auricular acupuncture, auricular therapy, ear acupuncture): Form of homuncular acupuncture developed by Dr. P.F.M. Nogier of France. Its theory depicts the auricle (the outer portion of the ear) as an upside-down fetus with points that correspond to bodily parts. Such points number more than two hundred. Ostensible diagnosis involves examining the ear for tenderness or for variations in electrical conductivity. Treatment consists in the acupuncturing or supposed electrical stimulation of the auricular acupoint that "corresponds" to the anatomical site of the malady.

autoregulation: "Energy approach" to panic disorders advanced by author Majid Ali, M.D., the developer of life span nutrition. It apparently includes Tissue Sensing.

auto-suggestion (self-suggestion): Form of verbal therapy wherein one repeats affirmations or suggestions until one's "body-mind" begins to act accordingly.

Avatar(R) (Avatar Course): "Belief management" course developed in 1987. It supposedly is applicable to problems concerning education, finance, occupation, and health. Avatar's fundamental doctrine is that people have a natural ability to create or "discreate" any reality at will. This alleged ability stems from a hypothetical part of consciousness that proponents call "SOURCE."

The Awakened Life (The Awakened Life program): One of psychotherapist Wayne W. Dyer's audiocassette programs for self-development. Wayne Dyer, Ph.D., is the author of Manifest Your Destiny: The Nine Spiritual Principles for getting Everything You Want (Harper, 1998) and the bestsellers Real Magic, Seeing Is Believing, Your Erroneous Zones, and Your Sacred Self. The Awakened Life program allegedly can teach one how to attune oneself to a "Higher Power," which Nightingale-Conant Corporation, marketer of Dyer's programs, equates with God, "Nature," and the "Life Force." The company describes The Awakened Life program as "powerful medicine" that has been helpful in the treatment of cancer, "other 'incurable' diseases," and addiction to smoking, alcohol, and drugs.

Awareness Release Technique(R) (A.R.T.): Component of Advanced Energy Healing. A.R.T. purportedly is a result of Dr. Robert T. Jaffe's discovery that "psychological issues" alter the "human energy field" and cause disease. Its theory apparently posits "subtle energies" and a "third eye," which enables clairvoyance. It is an alleged means of finding and "releasing" the "core" of a disease.

Awareness Through Movement(R) (ATM): Group form of the Feldenkrais Method.

Ayurveda (ancient Indian medicine, Ayurveda Medicine, Ayurveda System of Medicine, Ayurvedic healing, Ayurvedic healthcare, Ayurvedic medicine, ayurvedism, classical Indian medicine, Indian medicine, Science of Longevity, traditional Ayurveda, traditional Indian medicine, Vedic medicine): Allegedly, the "most complete" system of "natural medicine" and the "mother of all healing arts." Ayurvedic theory posits a "subtle anatomy" that includes: (a) nadis, "canals" that carry prana ("cosmic energy") throughout the body; (b) chakras, "centers of consciousness" that connect body and soul; and (c) marmas, points on the body beneath which "vital structures" (physical and/or "subtle") intersect. Ayurvedic ostensible diagnosis involves examination of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, nails, and pulse. Ayurvedists associate parts of the lips and tongue, for example, with internal organs and maintain that discolorations, lines, cracks, and irritability in various areas indicate disorders in "corresponding" organs. The pulse is important because of the belief that the heart is the seat of the underlying intelligence of nature: allegedly, human consciousness. (See "classical Indian medicine.")

Ayurvedic Acupuncture (Bhedan Karma, traditional Indian acupuncture): Subject of The Lost Secrets of Ayurvedic Acupuncture: An Ayurvedic Guide to Acupuncture (1994), by Frank Ros, "A.M.D." (probably "Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine"), D.Ac. Ayurvedic Acupuncture is a form of Marma Chikitsa. The basis of Ayurvedic Acupuncture is the Suchi Veda. "Bhedan Karma" means "piercing-through therapy."

Ayurvedic Acupuncture (Bhedan Karma, traditional Indian acupuncture): Subject of The Lost Secrets of Ayurvedic Acupuncture: An Ayurvedic Guide to Acupuncture (1994), by Frank Ros, "A.M.D." (probably "Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine"), D.Ac. Ayurvedic Acupuncture is a form of Marma Chikitsa. The basis of Ayurvedic Acupuncture is the Suchi Veda. "Bhedan Karma" means "piercing-through therapy."

Ayurvedic Facial: Purportedly, a "therapeutic skin care experience" that involves the use of "dosha-specific" products and a facial massage focusing on "marma points."

 Ayurvedic nutrition (Ayurvedic diet): Nutritional phase of Ayurveda. It involves eating according to (a) one's "body type" and (b) the "season." The alleged activity of the doshas--three "bodily humors," "dynamic forces," or "spirits that possess"--determines one's "body type." In Ayurveda, "body types" number seven, eight, or ten, and "seasons" traditionally number six. Each two-month season corresponds to a dosha; for example, the two seasons that correspond to the dosha named "Pitta" (see "Raktamoksha") constitute the period of mid-March through mid-July. But some proponents enumerate three seasons: summer (when pitta predominates), autumn, and winter (the season of kapha); or Vata season (fall and winter), Kapha season (spring), and Pitta season (summer). According to Ayurvedic theory, one should lessen one's intake of foods that increase ("aggravate") the ascendant dosha.

 Ayurvedic Reflexology-Acupressure:Service offered by the Dr. Guervaz Ayurveda Center, in New York City. Its purported design is to open "channels" and "meridians."

abhyanga: Ayurvedic "rejuvenating cure" that is a secondary part of panchakarma. Abhyanga is a "very complete massage" with a medicated ("herbalized") oil. Practitioners supposedly gear the medicated oil to one's "constitutional type" (see "Ayurvedic nutrition").

abjad: Sufi system of numerology.

aboukra: Purportedly, an ancient Egyptian "healing art" that strengthens and balances the body's "natural energy fields" and "meridians."

absent healing (absentee healing, distance healing, distant healing, remote healing, teleotherapeutics): 1. Alleged treatment of a patient not in the practitioner's vicinity through magic, meditation, prayer, "spirit doctors," or telepathy. 2. A form of faith healing that supposedly involves the projection of "positive healing energy."

ACCESS (Access Energy Transformation): "Energy technique" that supposedly works with the "creative force" to free it and connect it to the "Light" ("us"). Allegedly, Novian, a "Being of Light," channeled the method to Gary Douglas through the Russian monk Grigori Efimovich Rasputin (1872?-1916). ACCESS theory posits: (a) 32 "Bars," points on the head that are a means of allowing the flow of bodily "energies"; (b) a "Soul"; (c) "Implants," electrical devices (e.g., a "False Immune System") inserted in another lifetime and attached "electrically" to the Soul's "energy"; and (d) "Entities," disembodied beings or "thought forms." Purportedly, ACCESS removes "energetic blocks" at cellular and "etheric" levels and enables one to reclaim "awareness as an eternal being."

acro-sage: A "combination of massage, yoga, and gymnastics," according to an edition of the TV magazine Strange Universe aired on UPN on November 29, 1996. Former circus performer Benjamin Marantz created the method. Apparently, it is a purported way to "reverse aging."

active imagery: Form of imagery (see below) that involves concentrating on a preselected image to control a particular symptom.

Actualism (Actualism Lightwork, agni yoga, Fire Yoga, lightwork): Stepwise form of yoga developed over a quarter-century by Russell Paul Schofield, a clairvoyant with doctorates in divinity, naturopathy, and psychology. It involves "the laying-on of lighted hands." Its theory posits a human "divine mind," whose "scope" is infinite, and ki (a human life force).

Actualism bodywork: Component of Actualism supposedly designed to assist awakening the body and its consciousness to the "indwelling Creator" and to the love of this alleged entity. It includes "nerve work," which purportedly helps to deepen one's enjoyment of "life-energies."

acu-ball pressure self-treatment: Form of self-applied acupressure characterized by the use of soft balls of solid rubber.

acu-diet (Dr. Bahr's acu-diet): Subject of Dr. Bahr's Acu-Diet: Weight Loss at Your Fingertips (William Morrow & Company, Inc.), by Munich-born Frank R. Bahr, M.D. The acu-diet is a combination of diets, exercises, and self-applied acupressure. According to acu-diet theory, one can influence the "compulsive eating center" in one's brain simply by massaging specific "acupressure points."

acu-meridian energy transmission bodywork: Component of the Er Mei Qi Gong Therapy External Energy Diagnosis and Treatment system.

acupoint bloodletting: Form of bloodletting characterized by puncturing acupoints with needles. Its common usage reportedly has various purposes, including activation of blood, clearance of channels (meridians), and reduction of hotness.

acu-point therapy: Mode of counseling psychology based partly on acupuncture theory and promoted by Mitchell J. Rabin, M.A.

Acu-Powder (Acupowder treatment): One of the "clinic services" offered by the School of Classical Taoist Herbology, in Manhattan (New York City). It involves application of a "remarkable" herbal powder to acupoints.

acupressure (G-jo [GEE-joh]): Any treatment that allegedly involves the surface stimulation of acupoints digitally, manually, or with tools held in the hand. Practitioners may be called "acupressurists." "G-jo" is Chinese for "first aid."

acupressure massage: Acupressure in the form of a massage (An Mo). Apparently, it is the equivalent of amma. Acupressure massage purportedly is usable to promote the flow of Qi (chi) through the "meridian system."

acupressure touch: Gentle form of acupressure.

acupuncture (acupuncture therapy, Zhenjiu): Generally, any treatment that allegedly involves subcutaneous stimulation of acupoints, which supposedly enable direct influence of the flow of Qi (chi). It typically involves the insertion of needles of various shapes into the skin. Practitioners may be called "acupuncturists" or "acupuncture therapists." Most forms of acupuncture are unnaturalistic. Neuro-electric acupuncture and New Scientific ElectroAcupuncture—and, apparently, osteopuncture—are naturalistic.

acupuncture anesthesia (acupuncture analgesia, acupuncture assisted anesthesia, anesthetic acupuncture): Use of acupuncture to relieve pain during surgery wherein the patient is conscious, either in conjunction with or instead of analgesics or chemical anesthetics. It was introduced in 1958 in the People's Republic of China.

acupuncture cupping method: Combination of acupuncture and cupping.

acupuncture energetics (core acupuncture energetics): Practice of acupuncture with the intention of treating acupoints so that they "resonate" with "archaic pathways" of the "bodymind." It involves acupuncture imaging.

acupuncture imaging: Part of acupuncture energetics wherein the practitioner simultaneously palpates an acupuncture "zone" and describes it to the client in "energetic" terms. Joint focusing on "affected" zones supposedly enables channeling of the client's "true healing intention" to "appropriate" zones, which purportedly effects "bodymind integration."

"Acupuncture Osteopathy": A purported "meridian acupuncture" approach to releasing myofascial "body constitutions," advanced by author Mark D. Seem, Ph.D.

Acuscope therapy (Electro-Acuscope therapy): Form of energy medicine (vibrational medicine) that allegedly speeds healing of virtually any injury. Its centerpiece is the Acuscope (also called the Electro-Acuscope), a computerized device that purportedly balances the body's electrical current.

Acu-Stop 2000: "Acupressure method" promoted by mail in 1993. It was a purported sure-fire way to lose at least thirty pounds, fast, and without exercise, pills, or much willpower. Acu-Stop 2000 involved keeping an "acupressure-like device" of the same name in one's right ear for a few minutes daily. Allegedly, stimulation of this "ear piece": (a) stimulates "points" in the body that regulate appetite and (b) "suppresses their activity."

Acutherapy: Form of touch therapy developed by Jim Foster and taught by the Myotherapy Institute Research Center, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Foster reportedly discovered that gentle touching of specific areas of the body removed pain almost magically. Acutherapy purportedly uses the body's "reflex system" and "energy flows."

acu-yoga: Combination of self-applied acupressure and a group of yogic postures and stretches. It supposedly activates the points and "energy pathways" of acupuncture.

advanced dowsing: Radiesthesia without an "instrument" (e.g., a pendulum).

Advanced Energy Healing (Robert Jaffe Advanced Energy Healing): Alleged "journey" into "higher realms" of understanding whereby one supposedly connects with one's "divine self." Taught by Robert T. Jaffe, M.D., D.D., the method encompasses aura analysis, the Awareness Release Technique, clairvoyant diagnosis, "magnetic/radiatory healing," "soul merging," and "third eye awakening."

Advanced Ingham Method: Comprehensive form of the Original Ingham Method.

advanced Kum Nye: Apparently, an alleged means of promoting confidence, power, and endurance through stimulation and transformation of bodily and mental "energies."

advanced pranic healing: Subject of a "serious reference work" of the same name, written by chemical engineer and "Grandmaster Pranic Healer" Choa Kok Sui. The method includes chakral pranic healing and color pranic healing.

advanced Rolfing: Form of Rolfing purportedly geared to clients who have undergone the basic Rolfing series of ten sessions.

African holistic health (African holistics, African holistic science, African medicine): Subject of African Holistic Health, whose fourth edition was published in 1993. The paperback's author, herbalist and massage therapist Dr. Llaila [la-ee-la] O. Afrika, developed this ethnic variation of naturopathy. Its purported design is to treat the physical, mental, and spiritual causes of "dis-ease."

Agape Quest Program: Form of kinesiology (see below) that encompasses more than twenty "modalities," including acupressure and, apparently, Bach flower therapy and/or flower essence therapy. The program allegedly "unlock[s] blockages."

Agartha Personal Life Balancing Program (Agartha Program): Thirty-five-day audiotape program created by author Meredith Lady Young. Its purported design is to reduce stress and promote "complete health." Each of the seven "harmonic" tapes combines sounds reportedly "developed" to alter "energy currents" within specific chakras. These sounds supposedly "massage" chakras and thereby improve the flow of life force through the body.

Agni Dhatu Therapy© (Agni Dhatu, Samadhi Yoga): "Hands-on" form of spiritual healing that purportedly enables the conscious to experience the "Super-Conscious" by lulling and healing the subconscious. Its theory posits "energies of bliss," "energies of joy," and "Psychic Energy Channels." Agni Dhatu Therapy includes "OMEGA Pattern Clearing work." Practitioner Cherry N. Manning has defined "agni dhatu" as "experiencing the limitlessness of your inner fires."

aikido: Spiritual discipline and self-defense method that uses grappling, throws, and "nonresistance" to debilitate opponents. The name "aikido" combines three Japanese words: ai ("union" or "harmony"), ki ("breath," "spirit" or "life force"), and do ("way"). Proponents translate aikido as "the way of unifying ki" or "the way of harmony with the spirit of the universe (or universal energy)." Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969), a Japanese farmer and master martial artist, founded aikido sometime between 1922 and 1931, supposedly after a divine revelation. Ueshiba claimed supernatural power. (His surname is also spelled "Oyeshiba" and "Uyeshiba.") Practitioners may be called "aikidoists."

air pumping cupping method: Form of cupping that requires a suction device, such as an "air pumping cup."

AK/NOT program (Ferreri program): Combination of the Ferreri Technique and the Neural Organization Technique (NOT). "AK" stands for "applied kinesiology."

Alchemia: Form of channeling that allegedly involves activating "Universal Fifth Dimensional Energy."

Alchemia Breathwork: System that allegedly transforms "karmic situations" and, through "focused use" of the "Breath" and the life force, frees "suppressed energy." It includes Alchemia heart breath.

Alchemia® heart breath: Component of Alchemia Breathwork that practitioners reportedly use as an initial step toward discovering "energy blockages."

Alchemical Bodywork: Combination of Alchemical Hypnotherapy and various forms of bodywork. Its postulate is that "emotion" can become "stuck" in the body and is locatable.

Alchemical Hypnotherapy (Alchemical work): "Powerful transformative process" developed by David Quigley. Its purported design is to assist clients in working with their "Inner Guides" ("archetypes"). It apparently borrows from Ericksonian Hypnosis, Gestalt, Jungian psychology, NLP, psychosynthesis, regression therapy, shamanism, Transpersonal Hypnotherapy, and transpersonal psychology. Its theory posits a collective unconscious, "past-life memories" therein, "etheric plane communication," an "inner child," an "inner mate," and karma. Alchemical Hypnotherapy appears identical to, a variation of, or the successor to Transformational Hypnotherapy.

Alchemical Synergy®: Form of hypnotherapy whose purported goal is to develop the "optimum potential" of individuals by connecting them with their respective "inner master."

Alchemical weight management: Purported means of working with the subconscious causes of "weight release" and body image. It includes Emotional Clearing and inner child work.

Alexander Technique® (Alexander method, F.M. Alexander Technique): A purported means of integrating one's mental, physical, and spiritual "aspects." According to its theory, maintaining alignment of the head, neck, and back leads to optimum overall physical functioning. Frederick Matthias Alexander (1869-1955), an Australian Shakespearean actor, developed the method at the turn of the century and wrote The Resurrection of the Body. Although his original purpose was to assist voice projection, Alexander concluded that faulty posture was responsible for diverse symptoms. He posited that habitual unbalanced movement affects the functioning of the entire body, implying that postures entail behavior patterns and that bad postural habits can distort one's personality. Alexander further posited that all proper bodily movements flowed from one basic movement, the maximum lengthening of the spine, which he termed the "primary control." He stated that, in a sense, his method embraced all religions, and he posited an "all-wise" invisible "Authority" within the "soul of man." Practitioners ("teachers") of the Alexander Technique press manually on various parts of the "student's" body and simultaneously repeatedly pronounce phrases that are key to the method.

Alliance method ("traditional" Reiki, Usui System of Natural Healing; called "Hayashi" in Japan): The Usui System of the Reiki Alliance; a form of Reiki training that traces to Dr. Chujiro Hayashi, a retired naval officer who became a student of Mikao Usui. Hayashi theory posits three levels of "Reiki energy."

Alphabiotic Alignment/Unification Process: A "hands-on" procedure of Alphabiotics that proponents have described as a "necessary crutch." According to its theory, those who experience discomfort the first time they undergo "the Process" especially need to undergo it.

Alphabiotics: Brainchild of Dr. V.B. Chrane, who began practicing it in the 1920s near Abilene, Texas. His son, Dr. Virgil Chrane, Jr., founded Alphabiotics as a "profession" on December 28, 1971. Its theory posits a "lesser self," a "Greater Self," and "Life energy." Practitioners are called "alphabioticists." (See "Alphabiotic Alignment/Unification Process.")

Alpha Calm Therapy: Combination of guided imagery and Ericksonian Hypnosis. It purportedly can cause a freeing of "energy" from the subconscious.

alternative nutrition (alternative nutritional treatments, alternative nutrition strategies, alternative nutrition therapies): Ill-defined group of methods that apparently encompasses Chinese herbal medicine, the Chinese System of Food Cures, and nutrient pharmaco-therapy--administration of specific micronutrients in pharmacologic doses.

Alternative 12 Steps: Nontheistic derivative of the Twelve Steps, expounded by Martha Cleveland, Ph.D., and "Arlys G." in The Alternative 12 Steps: A Secular Guide To Recovery (1992). Three of their "Steps" affirm "spiritual resources" or "spiritual energy."

Ama Deus: Reportedly, a system of healing, magic, and divination used for millennia by Guarani "shamen" in Brazil. The Guaranis are a South American Indian people.

Amanae transformational bodywork: Purportedly, a unique "Multi-dimensional healing process" that helps in "shifting out" trauma "held" in the body.

American macrobiotics: Approach to macrobiotics developed by Tonia Porter-Hugus.

amma (anma, General Massage, Pu Tong An Mo): General form of Chinese Qigong massage. Its theory posits 361 "energy points" (tsubos). An means press, mo means rub, and an mo means massage. The purported goals of amma include relaxation, improvement of blood circulation, and prevention of illness.

AMMA Therapy®: A derivative of amma and the alleged "grandparent of massage." Korean-born Tina Sohn developed AMMA Therapy in the 1960s. It involves bodywork, diet, vitamin supplements, and herbs. Supposedly, AMMA Therapy: uses "powerful energetic points" discovered by Sohn; treats the "physical body," "bio-energy," and the emotions; and frees the mind and spirit.

Amplified Energy Therapy: Form of energy healing (see "vibrational medicine") promoted by Richard Gordon. Its postulate is that people can learn to maneuver their "life-force energy" toward following the body's "innate intelligence."

ancient Christian magic: Group of amulet recommendations, recipes, and spells conveyed in a book of the same name. Apparently, the basis of this brand of magic is "ritual power."

Angel Chiropractic Care: "Wholistic approach" promoted by Dr. Steven B. Angel. It encompasses applied kinesiology, Bach flower therapy, biomagnetic therapy, chiropractic "techniques," CranioSacral Therapy, nutritional counseling, reflexology, and vibrational medicine.

angelic healing: Apparently, any form of channeling, intercessory prayer, meditation, or visualization that purportedly involves the therapeutic assistance of angels. Its postulate is that angels invisibly guide, protect, and heal people.

Annette Martin training: Program that borrows from the Edgar Cayce tradition (see "The Cayce Approach to Health and Healing"). Its focus is clairvoyant diagnosis.

anthroposophical medicine (anthroposophically-extended medicine, anthroposophical therapeutics): Medical phase of anthroposophy, the occult philosophy of Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925). Anthroposophical medicine, a purported "extension of practical medicine," encompasses curative eurythmy. According to anthroposophy, the human organism consists of a physical body, a vegetal "etheric" body, an animalistic "astral" or "soul" body, and an "ego" or "spirit." Anthroposophical "remedies" supposedly smooth the interaction of these components.

apitherapy (bee sting therapy, bee venom therapy): Administration of honeybee stings to treat a wide variety of illnesses. Apitherapy allegedly "unleashes" the body's "healing power." According to one theory, the "energetics" of bees and their venom is key to the method.

apple diet (apple-cleansing regimen, apple-diet cleansing routine, apple-diet regimen, apple-diet therapy): Alleged purificatory "reducing aid" inspired by the "readings" of "religious seer" Edgar Cayce (see "The Cayce Approach to Health and Healing"). The three-day regimen includes enemas and restricts food intake to raw apples (especially Delicious and Jonathan, and peeled unless they are organic), black coffee, and olive oil. Cayce recommended the diet for numerous ailments, including anemia, debilitation, and "subluxations."

applied kinesiology (AK, kinesiology): Elaborate system of ostensible diagnosis and treatment whose centerpiece is muscle testing (see below). Detroit chiropractor George J. Goodheart, Jr., developed the first AK procedure (the origin and insertion technique) in 1964. He theorized that muscle groups share "energy pathways" with internal organs and that, therefore, every organ dysfunction is discoverable in a related muscle. Testing muscles for relative strength and tone supposedly taps the body's "innate intelligence" and enables practitioners to detect specific dysfunctions. AK encompasses: "clinical nutrition"; CranioSacral Therapy; "dietary management"; homeopathy, including classical homeopathy; meridian therapy (see "Ching Lo"), especially acupressure and acupuncture; and reflexology.

aqua acupuncture (aqua acupuncture therapy, aquapuncture, the injection therapy): Form of acupuncture that involves the hypodermic injection of substances (e.g., vitamin preparations or liquid herbal extracts) at acupuncture points, purportedly to "stimulate" them by pressure from the injected substance.

archetypal psychology: Form of psychotherapy akin to theotherapy and advanced by Jungian analyst Jean Shinoda Bolen. Archetypal psychology focuses on myths as keys to self-knowledge.

Arhatic YogaSM (Arhatic Yoga System): Syncretic form of yoga developed by Choa Kok Sui, an exponent of Kriyashakti, Pranic Healing, and pranic psychotherapy. Its purported design is to activate and align chakras, safely awaken "the 'sacred fires' of the body," and increase longevity. Its theory posits "golden energy," kundalini, and physical and spiritual "bodies." The Center for Pranic Healing, in New York City, defines "arhatic" as "a highly integrated human being equipped with very developed intuition, advanced mental powers, highly refined emotions and engaged in a great contribution to the Divine Plan."

Arica®: Spiritual movement founded by Oscar Ichazo, in Arica, a city of northern Chile. It includes bodywork and various breathing and meditational "techniques." The Arica School was founded in New York in 1971.

Aroma Behavior Conditioning (ABC): Combination of aromatherapy and NLP. The Myotherapy Institute Research Center (see "Acutherapy") offered a program in ABC but discontinued it before early June 1996.

aroma-spa therapy: Subject of a textbook of the same name (Anessence Inc., 1996), by massage therapist Anne Roebuck, of Toronto, Canada. Apparently, aroma-spa therapy is the practice of aromatherapy as a part of spa therapy, which Roebuck describes in the introduction as "therapeutic face and body treatments at a spa location."

aromatherapy (aromatic medicine, conventional aromatherapy, holistic aromatherapy): "Branch" of herbal medicine that centers on using fragrant substances, particularly oily plant extracts, to alter mood or to improve individuals' health or appearance. The alleged benefits of aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of "emotions from past experiences." Although aromatherapy has ancient roots, proponents did not call it "aromatherapy" before the 1930s. The expression "aromatherapy" is an umbrella used by the cosmetics, fragrance, and alternative-medicine industries. It derives from the French word aromathérapie, coined by René Maurice Gattefossé, a French chemist whose book of the same name was published in 1928. After a lab explosion Gattefossé conveniently plunged his badly burned hand into a vat of lavender oil. He noticed how well it healed, and thus began the development of modern aromatherapy, which French homeopaths Dr. and Mme. Maury revived in the 1960s.

In the aromatherapy industry the odorous substances of choice are essential oils (oils that are volatile, aromatic, and flammable) from flowers, fruits, grasses, leaves, roots, and wood resins. Manners of use of such oils include sniffing, ingestion, addition to bathwater, and application to the skin (typically with massage). One of aromatherapy's postulates is that essential oils have a "spiritual dimension" and can restore "balance" and "harmony" both to one's body and to one's life. One of its principles, the "doctrine of signatures," holds that a plant's visible and olfactory characteristics reveal its "secret" qualities. For example, because the configuration of the violet suggests shyness, aromatherapists hold that its scent engenders calmness and modesty. Some proponents have characterized essential oils as the soul or spirit of plants.

aroma-tology: Form of aromatherapy that includes using essential oils to "re-form" character and to enhance spirituality. Prof. William Arnold-Taylor, an aromatherapist, coined the name "aroma-tology" in 1981.

aromics™(aromics™ program): Combination of aromatherapy and NLP promoted in 1993 by Bill McMahan of Santa Ana, California. According to its theory, both smell and imagination ("mind power") are "senses," and one can "anchor" certain aromas to the "positive results" on which one focuses (e.g., weight control).

Artainment™ Component of The Human Ecology Program. It involves listening to New Age music on audiocassettes, compact discs, and/or music videos. The Artainment video titled "Freedom," an alleged supraliminal ("supersensory") experience, is the "foundation" of The Human Ecology Program. According to Artainment, music is one's "eternal friend."

ASATC.O.R.E. Counseling (ASAT C.O.R.E., C.O.R.E., C.O.R.E. Counseling): Purported unique "approach to facilitation" promoted by the American Society of Alternative Therapists (ASAT™), in Rockport, Massachusetts. The method allegedly heals people through "the ultimate means of all causation." Its theory posits an unlimited human capacity for "conscious creation of life." "C.O.R.E." stands for "Conscious, Ownership, Retrieval/Release and Engage." In 1996 or 1997, ASAT C.O.R.E. apparently replaced ASAT Transformational Counseling (see "Transformational Counseling").

Asian medicine: Group of "Eastern" methods that includes acupuncture, panchakarma, and shiatsu.

astanga yoga (Ashtanga Yoga, Raja Yoga): Putative prototype of hatha yoga. It involves ujaya breathing (see "ujjayi"), which purportedly helps to purify the cells and organs of the body. The Sanskrit word "raja" means king.

Astara's healing science: Form of spiritual healing advanced by Astara, Inc., a neo-Christian, interfaith church founded in 1951 by Drs. Earlyne C. Chaney and Robert G. Chaney. Earlyne Chaney is the author of Initiation in the Great Pyramid, Lost Empire of the Gods, and at least six other books. Her academic titles include "Doctor of Divinity," "Doctor of Philosophy," and "Doctor of Humanities in Spiritual and Psychic Sciences." Robert Chaney is the author of The Power of Your Own Medicine (Astara, 1995) and at least ten other books. Astara's healing science apparently encompasses absent healing, crystal healing, mental visualizations, and "scientific prayer." Its theory posits "etheric contacts" and a "White Light" with "magnetic energies."

Aston Movement: Mode of bodywork developed by Judith Aston, the founder of Aston-Patterning. One of its postulates is that bodily "patterns"--ways of moving, areas of ease, and areas of discomfort--reveal everyone's history of attitude, injury, and physical activity.

Aston-Patterning®: Form of "movement reeducation" developed by Judith Aston. Its purported design is to teach people how to live optimally in their bodies. One of its postulates is that the body wants to move in an asymmetrical spiral. With one hand, practitioners, called "Aston-Patterners," thus move connective tissue.

astrological counseling: "Psycho-spiritual" mode of psychotherapy practiced by author Laurie A. Baum, M.S.W., C.S.W. Its basis is astrology.

astrological diagnosis: Purported means of determining one's constitutional tendencies and "potential destiny." Its major considerations include the time and place of birth, the site of one's upbringing, and current astrological and astronomic "conditions."

astrologic medicine (astral healing, astrological healing, astromedicine, medical astrology, medicinal astrology): System based on "cosmobiology," an alleged science whose postulate is that specific mental and physical conditions correspond to the relative positions of celestial bodies. Astrologic medicine involves horoscopic astrology and the "zodiacal man" doctrine. The postulate of horoscopic astrology--also called genethliacal astrology, horoscopy, natal astrology, popular astrology, and sun sign astrology--is that the relationship between the positions of planets and stars and the moment of one's birth determines lifelong personality. According to the "zodiacal man" doctrine, each of the twelve signs ("houses") of the zodiac--constellations named Aries, Taurus, etc.--governs a different part of the human body. Proponents associate these zodiacal signs ("sun signs") with bodily parts (e.g., organs) and systems and with predisposition to disease in different bodily parts. Certain "planetary configurations" supposedly can trigger disease in susceptible persons. Some proponents further posit a correlation of (a) sun signs and particular herbs, and (b) sun signs and the twelve "cell salts" of the Schuessler biochemic system of medicine. Astrologic medicine includes astrodiagnosis (see "astrological diagnosis"), prognosis, selection and timing of treatments (especially homeopathic "remedies"), and alleged preventive medicine.

astrology (star-gazing): Alleged means of obtaining information that can provide "individualized insights" regarding emotional, professional, and health matters. Its postulate is that stars and planets influence humans and earthly occurrences by their aspects and relative positions. (See "astrologic medicine.")

Atlantean Healing Ray Training: Instruction in an alleged prototypal healing system (including "Healing at a Distance"), provided by Michael E. Morgan. Morgan is a trance channeler for Yokar, "the Atlantean Scientist-priest." Atlantean Healing Ray Training theory posits "the Life Force," "spiritual energies," and "subtle bodies."

attitudinal healing: Purported regulation or maintenance of physical, mental, and/or spiritual health by taking up "proper" mental attitudes or a particular worldview. Attitudinal healing encompasses Buddhist psychology, Christian Science, A Course in Miracles, transpersonal psychology, and yogic meditation.

attunement: Lifestyle and manual "vibrational healing art" (see "vibrational medicine").

auditing (pastoral counseling, processing): Psychotherapeutic technique introduced in 1950 by L. (Lafayette) Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) in his book Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. The procedure is central to Dianetics and may include use of an "E-meter" ("electropsychometer"; also called the "Hubbard Electrometer"), a quasi lie detector. Practitioners are called "auditors."

aura and vibrational diagnosis: Mode of Natural and Macrobiotic Medicine that is a form of aura analysis.

aura analysis (aura reading, auric diagnosis): Supposed direct or indirect examination of the "vital energy" that allegedly envelops each human. Proponents claim that this "aura" is perceptible to clairvoyants or psychics. "Nonpsychics" purportedly can analyze it through Kirlian photography or a Kilner screen. Dr. Walter J. Kilner (1847-1920) of St. Thomas's Hospital, in London, invented this screen: two plates of glass, an eighth of an inch apart, containing an alcoholic solution of a dye (usually carmine or a coal-tar dye). "Auric" colors supposedly reveal the personal traits of the subject, such as impressionableness and "spiritual arrogance." Proponents also associate "auric" colors with glands, organs, organ systems, and psychological states such as anger and boredom.

aura balancing (aura cleansing, aura clearing, aura healing, auric healing): Multiform method characterized by purported treatment of the "energy field" ("aura") around a person's head or body.

Aura Imaging Photography (Aura Imaging): Variation of Kirlian photography promoted by Johannes R. Fisslinger, the German author of Aura Imaging Photography, Aura Mastery, and Aura Visions, and by "researcher" Guy Coggins, author of Aura Awareness: What Your Aura Says About You. Aura Imaging is a purported means of reading the "true character" of individuals. It involves using an "aura camera" that can produce instant photos. The color, shape, and size of the "auric image" allegedly can indicate specific physical, emotional, and spiritual conditions. Aura Imaging theory posits chakras ("energy centers" that correspond to endocrine glands) and "vital energy."

aurasomatherapy: Brainchild of London-born clairvoyant Vicky Wall. It is a variation of color therapy and a form of aura balancing and chakra healing.

auric massage technique: Manual adjunct to angelic healing that is a form of aura cleansing (aura balancing). Its apparent postulate is that health accompanies bodily "harmony," which results from the restoration of "harmony" to the "higher bodies" that allegedly surround the body.

auricular acupuncture (auricular acupuncture therapy): Alleged stimulation of acupoints on the auricle (the outer portion of the ear). Practitioners may base their choice of points on clinical experience, "modern medicine," the site of the disease, or the TCM theories of "Organs" and meridians.

auricular analgesia (auricular analgesic acupuncture, auricular acupuncture analgesia): Form of Chinese auricular therapy whose apparent design is to alleviate pain in fully conscious patients.

auricular diagnosis: Component of Chinese auricular therapy.

auricular magnetic therapy (magneto-therapy, magnet therapy): Component of Chinese auricular therapy that involves taping magnetic balls or pellets to auricular acupoints.

auricular massage: Component of Chinese auricular therapy that involves digitally pinching, pressing, or rotating all or part of the ear.

auricular moxibustion: Component of Chinese auricular therapy whose forms include (a) burnt match moxibustion, in which the practitioner taps one or two auricular acupoints rapidly with the head of a burnt match; (b) indirect moxibustion, a form of indirect moxabustion; (c) thread incense moxibustion, a variation of direct moxabustion; and (d) warm needle moxibustion, wherein the practitioner heats an inserted needle with a match or lighter.

auricular point injection: Component of Chinese auricular therapy that is a form of aqua acupuncture.

auricular point laser-stimulating method (laser needling): Component of Chinese auricular therapy that is a form of laserpuncture.

auricular reflexology: Mode of reflexology whose focus is the ear. Dr. P.F.M. Nogier of France "discovered" the method in 1967.

auriculotherapy (auricular acupuncture, auricular therapy, ear acupuncture): Form of homuncular acupuncture developed by Dr. P.F.M. Nogier of France. Its theory depicts the auricle (the outer portion of the ear) as an upside-down fetus with points that correspond to bodily parts. Such points number more than two hundred. Ostensible diagnosis involves examining the ear for tenderness or for variations in electrical conductivity. Treatment consists in the acupuncturing or supposed electrical stimulation of the auricular acupoint that "corresponds" to the anatomical site of the malady.

autoregulation: "Energy approach" to panic disorders advanced by author Majid Ali, M.D., the developer of life span nutrition. It apparently includes Tissue Sensing.

auto-suggestion (self-suggestion): Form of verbal therapy wherein one repeats affirmations or suggestions until one's "body-mind" begins to act accordingly.

Avatar® (Avatar Course): "Belief management" course developed in 1987. It supposedly is applicable to problems concerning education, finance, occupation, and health. Avatar's fundamental doctrine is that people have a natural ability to create or "discreate" any reality at will. This alleged ability stems from a hypothetical part of consciousness that proponents call "SOURCE."

The Awakened Life (The Awakened Life program): One of psychotherapist Wayne W. Dyer's audiocassette programs for self-development. Wayne Dyer, Ph.D., is the author of Manifest Your Destiny: The Nine Spiritual Principles for getting Everything You Want (Harper, 1998) and the bestsellers Real Magic, Seeing Is Believing, Your Erroneous Zones, and Your Sacred Self. The Awakened Life program allegedly can teach one how to attune oneself to a "Higher Power," which Nightingale-Conant Corporation, marketer of Dyer's programs, equates with God, "Nature," and the "Life Force." The company describes The Awakened Life program as "powerful medicine" that has been helpful in the treatment of cancer, "other 'incurable' diseases," and addiction to smoking, alcohol, and drugs.

Awareness Release Technique® (A.R.T.): Component of Advanced Energy Healing. A.R.T. purportedly is a result of Dr. Robert T. Jaffe's discovery that "psychological issues" alter the "human energy field" and cause disease. Its theory apparently posits "subtle energies" and a "third eye," which enables clairvoyance. It is an alleged means of finding and "releasing" the "core" of a disease.

Awareness Through Movement®: Group form of the Feldenkrais Method.

Ayurveda (Ayurveda Medicine, Ayurvedic healing, Ayurvedic healthcare, Ayurvedic medicine, ayurvedism, Indian medicine, Science of Longevity, traditional Ayurveda, traditional Indian medicine, Vedic medicine): The medical phase of Hinduism. Promoters applaud it as the "most ancient" and "most complete" system of "natural medicine" and as the "mother of all healing arts." Ayurvedic theory posits a "subtle anatomy" that includes: (a) nadis, "canals" that carry prana ("cosmic energy") throughout the body; (b) chakras, "centers of consciousness" that connect body and soul; and (c) marmas, points on the body beneath which "vital structures" (physical and/or "subtle") intersect. Ayurvedic "diagnosis" involves examination of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, nails, and pulse. Ayurvedists associate parts of the lips and tongue, for example, with internal organs and maintain that discolorations, lines, cracks, and irritability in various areas indicate disorders in "corresponding" organs. The pulse is important because, supposedly, the heart is the seat of the underlying intelligence of nature: human consciousness.

Ayurvedic Acupuncture (Bhedan Karma, traditional Indian acupuncture): Subject of The Lost Secrets of Ayurvedic Acupuncture: An Ayurvedic Guide to Acupuncture (1994), by Frank Ros, "A.M.D." (probably "Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine"), D.Ac. Ayurvedic Acupuncture is a form of Marma Chikitsa. The basis of Ayurvedic Acupuncture is the Suchi Veda. "Bhedan Karma" means "piercing-through therapy."

Ayurvedic nutrition (Ayurvedic diet): Nutritional phase of Ayurveda. It involves eating according to (a) one's "body type" and (b) the "season." The alleged activity of the doshas--three "bodily humors," "dynamic forces," or "spirits that possess"--determines one's "body type." In Ayurveda, "body types" number seven, eight, or ten, and "seasons" traditionally number six. Each two-month season corresponds to a dosha; for example, the two seasons that correspond to the dosha named "Pitta" (see "Raktamoksha") constitute the period of mid-March through mid-July. But some proponents enumerate three seasons: summer (when pitta predominates), autumn, and winter (the season of kapha); or Vata season (fall and winter), Kapha season (spring), and Pitta season (summer). According to Ayurvedic theory, one should lessen one's intake of foods that increase ("aggravate") the ascendant dosha.

Ayurvedic Reflexology-Acupressure: Service offered by the Dr. Guervaz Ayurveda Center, in New York City. Its purported design is to open "channels" and "meridians."

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This page was revised on March 25, 2007.