A Mail-Order Diploma Mill
Stephen Barrett, M.D.
Bernadean University, whose postal address was in Los Angeles, was never been authorized to operate or to grant degrees. Yet it managed to remain in business for more than 40 years. Bernadean's web site stated that it was accredited by the World Council of Global Education and that its College of Health Sciences was accredited by the American Association of Drugless Practitioners. However, these entities were not recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and should be considered academically meaningless. Bernadean's "College of Law" claimed to offer a degree "based on the Harvard Law School curriculum, and its "College of Health Sciences" offered courses in acupressure, acupuncture, anatomy and physiology, Bach flower therapies, cancer therapies, herbology, homeopathy, iridology, kinesiology, massage, natural childbirth, nutrition, reflexology, reiki, shiatsu, and weight control. Ten subjects were required for a Doctor of Naturopathy (ND) degree. Completing five more would earn a "Doctor of Preventive Medicine (DPM)" degree. Degrees were also available in "pastoral counseling."
Alumni in Action
Bernadean's best known graduate is Richard A. Passwater, "PhD," whose books include Cancer and Its Nutritional Therapies, Supernutrition, and Selenium As Food and Medicine. Passwater is director of research for Solgar Company, Inc. (a supplement manufacturer) and writes regularly for Whole Foods, a health-food-industry trade magazine. He has also edited a series of "Good Health Guide" booklets (Keats Publishing Inc.) whose purpose is to promote the sales of products sold through health-food stores. Other Bernadean credential-holders include:
- Ray Blair, ND, who marketed various supplement products and produced a newsletter called "Strictly Personal."
- Patricia Bragg, PhD, ND, is described on her Web site as a "Life Extension Nutritionist, Author of 10 Self-Health Books, Dynamic Health Crusader, Lecturer, Health Educator and Fitness Advisor to World Leaders, Hollywood Stars, Singers, Dancers and Athletes." The site states that she "was awarded a Ph.D. in health science in 1973 and doctor of naturopathy degree in 1974 from Bernadean University in Nevada."
L. Davis, ND, of Great Lakes, Illinois, who received naturopathy
degrees from Bernadean University and the Anglo-American Institute
of Drugless Therapy (another diploma mill). A biographical sketch
stated: "He conducts health seminars as a medical missionary
outreach registered as 'The Entering Wedge Society' and specializes
in live cell microscopy in conjunction with nutritional counseling
using diet and natural remedies as aids to better health and
with nutritional counseling using diet and natural remedies as aids to better health and longevity.
- Stan Hatkoff, MS, DDiv, who received his pastoral, counseling and healing training from Bernadean University, Georgia State University, and the British Institute of Homeopathy, operated the Isaiah Bible Healing School, a correspondence school that offered lessons in "chronic pain and fatigue, anxiety, bitterness and unforgiveness, anger, grief and loss, heart disease and cancer, hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, meaningless and life direction, sleep disorders, depression, addictions, migraines, arthritis and joint pain, and many more."
- Gerhard Hanswille, an unlicensed Canadian "herbalist/naturopath" gave advice leading to the death of 17-month-old Lorie Atikian, who developed malnutrition and pneumonia after being kept on a meager diet he had recommended.
- Eveline Jerman ND, PhD, CA, who practices traditional Chinese medicine and "naturopathy" in Haifa, Israel. Her Web page states that she aims to "help balance the flow of internal energy in order to maintain a healthy body and mind."
- Ernst T. Krebs, Jr., co-discoverer and promoter of the quack cancer remedy laetrile.
- Timothy Kuss PhD, CNC., a California nutritionist, has MS and PhD degrees from the American Holistic College of Nutrition [a nonaccredited correspondence school that subsequently operated as the Clayton College of Natural Health] and naturopathy certification from Bernadean. Biographical sketches describe him as Director of Research and Development at Infinity Health in Denver, Colorado; co-founder of the Institute of Bio Energetic Research in Walnut Creek, California; and a consultant to over 1,500 medical clinics across the country.
- Dennis Ray Martin, JD, chief executive officer for the Denlin Corporation, a medical equipment manufacturer.
- Richard Picks, DN, who markets noni juice and who speaks on motivational and nutritional topics throughout the United States and Canada.
- Osha B. Reader, ND, PhD, is founder of Origin, a California facility for helping people optimize their physical, mental, and spiritual health."
- James Salvadori, Jr., who became "certified" by Bernadean after taking a nutrition course. He founded and New Sun, Inc., a multilevel company that markets herbs and dietary supplement products.
- Gary Young, ND, markets aromatherapy products through Young Living, a multilevel company in Payson, Utah. During the mid-1980s, he operated clinics in Rosarita Beach, Mexico, and Chula Vista, California. In 1988, a California judge issued a restraining order barring Young from advertising and selling misleading and deceptive health cures. The district attorney's office obtained the order after Young told a female health department investigator that she had an enlarged prostate and that carcinogenic cells existed in a "potentially aggressive manner." The diagnosis was based on a "blood crystallization test" of a sample of her blood submitted with the medical history of a fictitious male .
- Chester P. Yozwick, "CNA, ND, PMD" founded and served as president of the American Institute of Holistic Theology [AIHT], a nonaccredited correspondence school offering bachelor's, masters, and doctoral programs in metaphysics, "parapsychic science," divinity, "healtheology," holistic ministries, and "naturology. (Like Bernadean, AIHT states that it is accredited by American Association of Drugless Practitioners.) Yozwick was also author of "How to Practice Nutritional Counseling Legally Without Being Guilty of Practicing Medicine Without a License," a 42-page manual for "natural health" practitioners . The booklet's foreword, written by Kadans, calls Yozwick "a highly regarded graduate of Bernadean University." The key to avoiding legal trouble, said Yozwick, was not to "diagnose, treat or sell anything or collect fees for anything under the promise that it will cure disease." He advised readers to watch their language, to avoid naming organs of the body, and to say what they would do if they had their client's problem. He advised screening clients with a questionnaire, verifying their identity, and taking other steps to keep out "undesirables" (such as government investigators). He advised using a disclaimer stating that the advice given is not a substitute for medical treatment but is "for the sole purpose of teaching people how to build their own health." He also advised joining a professional nutritional association that can provide sound legal advice, nutrition news, group malpractice insurance, increased prestige, and news of "detrimental" legislative developments.
Bernadean's logo dates its founding to 1954. Its founder, Joseph M. Kadans, "PhD, JD, ND, ThD," (1912-1993) claimed to have obtained a law degree in 1943 from Eastern College of Commerce and Law (a nonaccredited law school), and to have earned PhD and ND degrees from the International University in New Delhi, India. However, an investigation by the Nevada State Board of Bar Examiners could not confirm that Kadans had enrolled in the New Delhi School. The investigation was ordered by the Nevada Supreme Court after Kadans petitioned to take the state bar examination, even though he lacked an accredited law degree. The board concluded that he had received a doctor of theology degree from Berean Christian College in Kansas in exchange for a degree from Bernadean to the President of Berean Christian College!  Kadens's book, Encyclopedia of Medicinal Herbs, is filled with unfounded advice .
Bernadean University was never authorized by the State of Nevada to operate or grant degrees. State investigators reported that it operated out of a small office with no classrooms and had four "faculty" members (who merely helped grade student papers), only one of whom even possessed a high school diploma. The investigators also found that law books Kadans claimed to have written were merely "an incomplete compilation of texts written by other authors" which Kadans had copied on Xerox machines. In 1977, the Nevada Supreme Court turned down Kadans' petition, stating, "We agree with the Board's conclusion that Kadans' operation of the dubious Bernadean University and his misrepresentations concerning the nature of the University cast serious doubt upon Kadans' moral suitability to practice law in this state."  During the same year, the Nevada courts ordered Bernadean to stop issuing degrees .
Undaunted, Kadans moved his "university" to Van Nuys, California. Although it was ordered to cease operation by a ruling of the California Attorney General , it continued to operate. Besides guiding his new operation as "Dean of Students," Kadans was also executive director of the "International Naturopathic Association,"  which claimed a membership of 2,000 and had the same Nevada address as Bernadean University . In 1981, the group's name was changed to "International Association of Holistic Health Practitioners (Naturopathic)," but its executive director and address remained the same.
In 1978, Benjamin Wilson, M.D., a surgical resident concerned about quackery, examined Bernadean's offerings and made a series of inquiries. One course that was offered was "Child. 101," which cost $90 and was described as: "Comprehensive course in home delivery, with section on natural birth control. Certificate as Mid-Wife." "Can. 401," offered for $120, was described as "a special research course in cancer theories and therapies. Degree as Master of Cancer Theories (Ct.M.)." Other offerings included a three-credit course in basic nutrition, resulting in a certificate as a "Nutritionist," for $120. A "Cancer Researcher" certificate could be obtained after a two-credit-hour course costing $80. Holders of a bachelor's degree could obtain a master's degree if they wrote a "thesis" or took "some short course with the school." A doctoral degree ("PhD" or "ScD") could then be obtained by taking 36 credit hours (@ $40 per credit) or writing an "equivalent" thesis. "Doctoral" degrees in acupuncture, reflexology, iridology, naturopathy, and homeopathy were also available. The naturopathy course cost $800 or $2,400. Both were said to have the same contents, but the more expensive version included unlimited toll-free telephone calls with Kadans plus "free consultations," a tape recorder, and a tape of a health talk with each lesson. Any student who satisfactorily completed a course could apply for designation as a "school mentor" who then could tutor new students. Mentors were also referred to as "Adjunct Professors."
Kadans was assisted in his California operation by Howard Long, "ThD, DSc," a former health-food store operator who also was executive director of the Adelle Davis Foundation. From 1962 through 1972, Long had been vice president in charge of membership, promotion, education, public relations, and conventions for the National Health Federation. In 1978, Wilson asked whether Bernadean would award him an honorary MD or PhD degree in return for a contribution of several hundred dollars. Wilson stressed that he needed one in a hurry because he was about to publish a book. Long replied that the MD degree "will not be offered by the University under any circumstances," but a PhD was possible—"with the necessary credentials" plus payment of $1,000.
In, 1981, Virginia Aronson, RD, (a real nutritionist) obtained a "Nutritionist" certificate from Bernadean, even though she deliberately attempted to fail the course. On the first "test," she answered the 35 true/false questions in accordance with nutrition facts. Since nearly one third of her answers contradicted information given in the school's lessons, she expected to get a grade of 70 or below. However, the test was returned with a grade of 90, with a letter from the "office administrator" stating: "You may use the book for answers as it is an open book course. I just seem to feel that you put the answers in the wrong column." On the second test, Aronson answered all the questions accurately so that her grade-based on information given in the course-should have been a zero. Yet she received a grade of 100% and an accompanying note congratulating her on the "excellent manner in which you have completed the Nutrition course." Her "Nutritionist" certificate, obtained for an additional $10, contains an attractive gold seal and indicated that she graduated "cum laude"! 
In 1990, the Nevada Commission on Postsecondary Education refused to process an application from Kadans to operate a correspondence school to grant law degrees. An official wrote:
Your past history and practices make it evident that you are unqualified to be licensed as a postsecondary school in the state of Nevada. I am aware of your history as Bernadean University and its predecessor.
Pursuant to [Nevada laws], you are required to be of good reputation and character. . . . In . . . 1977 . . . our Supreme Court found that you indulged in misrepresentations in . . . the operation of Bernadean University in Las Vegas and found that you were morally unfit to practice law in Nevada. In addition, we have evidence that Bernadean University issued a diploma in 1986 to an inmate at Leavenworth for the degree of Juris Doctor and Master of Theology without the academic achievement consistent with such diplomas. 
Bernadean continued to operate in California for about 12 years after Kadans's death in 1993. In 2002, I became aware that it was using the names Burney Universitatis and Burney University. Its Web site continued to function until 2005, offering a $25,000+ "doctoral" course in naturopathy as well as "certifications in iridology, reflexology, nutrition, oxygen therapies, physical culture, permaculture, homoeopathy alternative energy, martial arts, and other fields in the natural sciences . . . available upon request." 
California Bar statistics show that between February 1992 and July 1996, all Bernadean University College of Law graduates who took the Bar examination failed it.
- Himaka M. Clinic given order of restraint. The San Diego Union, March 7, 1988.
- Yozwick CP. How to Practice Nutritional Counseling Legally Without Being Guilty of Practicing Medicine Without a License. Youngstown, Ohio: Cheswick Publishers, 1985.
- In the matter of Joseph Kadans. No. 9838, April 8, 1977, 562 P.2nd 490.
- Kadans JM. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Herbs. New York: Arco Publishing, 1970.
- Welty RD. Letter to Thomas P. Bartley, June 1, 1981.
- Encyclopedia of Associations. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1978.
- Encyclopedia of Medical Organizations and Agencies, 7th Edition, Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998.
- Aronson V. You can't tell a nutritionist by the diploma. FDA Consumer 17(6):28-29, 1983.
- Krear ML. Letter to Joseph M. Kadans, Jan 17, 1990.
- Bernadean University Web site, Archived on March 5, 2005.
This article was revised on June 11, 2011.