Quackwatch Home Page
1. Historical development
Naturopathic medicine embraces several state and national bodies, plus a semi-active international organization.
The national history of naturopathic organization runs through varied names, title and leadership --all concerned with what has been virtually the same basic on-going association.
The present National Association of Naturopathic Physicians was formed in 1956 by merging two foregoing groups -- the American Naturopathic Association and the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. The present N.A.A.P. is today's single most comprehensive naturopathic society, albeit there is a relatively inactive International Society of Naturopathic Physicians.
Headquarters of the National Association of Naturopathic Physicians is at 1920 North Kilpatrick, Portland, Oregon 97217. Its President is John W. Noble, N.D. Arno Koegler, N.D., of 22 McDougall Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, is President of the International Society of Naturopathic Physicians.
2. Official purpose
The N.A.N.P. exists to strengthen and conserve public health through the philosophy, art, science, and practice of naturopathy (see Article II of the appended Constitution of the N.A.N.P.)
3. Regional, state, and local affiliations
Article I of the appended N.A.N.P. By-Laws authorizes the affiliation with N.A.N.P. of local associations under these conditions:
Section 1. Any state or territorial association wishing to become a constituent association of the National Association of Naturopathic Physicians shall make application on a prescribed form and submit evidence that its Constitution By-Laws, and Code of Ethics conform generally to those of this Association.
Section 2. It shall be a condition of such affiliation on the part of the constituent associations that the work of the officers, boards, departments, councils, bureaus, and committees of this Association will receive the cooperation of the constituent associations through their corresponding agencies.
Section 3. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to investigate and act upon all applications for affiliation as constituent associations, and pursuant thereto it may issue a charter to those whose Constitution, By-Laws, Code of Ethics, and general plan of operation conform in substance with those of this Association. The Executive Committee shall not issue more than one charter within the same state or territory.
There are at present formal state associations affiliated with the N.A.N.P. in Oregon, Idaho, Washington, Kansas, New York, Connecticut, and California.
4. Sources of income
N.A.N.P. income is derived from membership dues. paid annually-($12 for each member of a local association and $20 for each individual (non-member of a local association) N.A.N.P. member): from educational seminars, and from proceeds from conventions when such meetings realize a profit. Currently, N.A.N.P. is planning publication of a professional journal and its advertising profits will revert to the N.A.N.P. treasury.
N.A.N.P. does not maintain a paid staff. Its elected officers perform its organizational work. They are a President, Vice-President, Immediate Past-President, Treasurer, and Secretary -- comprising the N.A.N.P. Executive Committee, plus nine Trustees, also elected. These two groups of officials comprise the administrative (policy-making) and judicial (disciplinary) executive echelon of the Association.
The current officers are:
- Michael Lunch, N.D., 15 Leroux. Flagstaff, Arizona 86001.
- Donald R. Bettner, N.D., 1137 W. McDowell Road, Phoenix, Arizona 85006.
- Robert E. Bock, N.D., Box 61, Monte Vista, Colorado 81144.
- Wendell M. Grout, N.D., 827 Main Avenue, W.. Twin Falls, Idaho 83301.
- A. J. Rahn, N.D., 710 S. Orchard, Boise,: Idaho 83705.
- F. C. Albrecht, N.D., 627 S. Main Street, Crown Point, Indiana 46307.
- Charles R. Stone, N.D., 304 Postal Building, Portland, Oregon 97204.
- Walter Adams, N.D., 412 E. 72nd Street, Seattle, Washington 98115.
- Robert V. Carroll, N.D., 318 Shafer Building, Seattle, Washington 98101.
The officers named above will serve through mid-August, 1968. The Trustees serve three-year, staggered terms, with three seats becoming vacant and subject to being filled electively each year during voting at the annual N.A.N.P. convention.
Qualifications for holding the above-named offices will be found in Articles V and VI of the appended N.A.N.P. Constitution.
a. Individual members
Members of the N.A.N.P. and its affiliated associations are licensed naturopathic physicians -- N.D.'s: or dually-licensed naturopathic physicians and chiropractors -- holding both N.D. and D.C. degrees: or chiropractic physicians practicing in states which do not license naturopathic physicians per se -- practitioners who nonetheless diagnose and treat patients under the principles of naturopathic medicine, hence meet the membership standards of N.A.N.P. In several states without licensing statutes pertinent to naturopathy. naturopathic physicians are registered, thereby again obliging membership standards of N.A.N.P.
In reciting membership statistics. we should emphasize that this questionnaire is not being completed and filed solely on behalf of practitioners who are N.A.N.P. members. Rather, It is aimed at advancing arguments for and defining the professional posture of all men and women who practice as naturopathic physicians in the United States.
It is estimated that there are in the United States, under the three above-cited conditions of practice, 3,000-4,000 practicing naturopathic physicians. Because of the varying conditions affecting licensure, regulation, registration. or the common law right to practice, we cannot offer a precise head-count, but we believe that the total number of active and inactive naturopathic practitioners in the United States today would break down in approximately these numbers:
Current (mid-1968) membership of N.A.N.P. by state association breaks down this way:
(Canadian membership is not included, as these practitioners would obviously not be concerned with applications of U.S. laws.)
b. Individual membership qualifications
Continuing the points made as a necessary prelude to answering I.A.6.a., above, naturopathic physicians are specifically licensed or registered in fourteen states and the District of Columbia: licensed in Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Utah, Florida, Connecticut, Hawaii, Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia; registered in California, North Carolina, New York, and Kansas (and practicing under common law in Idaho).
Most states with licensing statutes require two years of pre-naturopathic college in liberal arts or science. In addition, all states require four-year, in-residence study in an approved naturopathic institution, with a total classroom instruction of 4500 hours (a median figure-requirements range from 4000-4800 hours).
(Parenthetically, by defining requirements for licensure or registration, we are also defining requirements for membership in the N.A.N.P., the questionnaire's specific point of inquiry.)
Many state have enacted statutes requiring that applicants must pass a basic science examination administered by the particular state's Board of Higher Education before being examined by a naturopathic examining board.
In states with no specific naturopathic licensing laws, most often registries of practitioners are maintained. . . . registration under some other type or term of licensure, or without any license in some cases. Registries exist in states in which there is no formal N.A.N.P.-affiliated association. States which now maintain such registries include California, New York, Kansas, and North Carolina. . . . to our knowledge. We have appended California's registry as a sample.
The most succinct body of data on naturopathic licensing is contained in "State Licensing of Health Occupations", U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare, Public Health Service, National Center for Health Statistics -- Public Health Service Publication No. 1758, of October, 1967; pp. 61, 62, 63.
To become a fully qualified, active member of N.A.N.P., a practitioner must meet membership requirements set forth in the appended N.A.N.P. By-Laws; Article II and III.
Associate members of N.A.N.P. are those persons without a Doctor of Naturopathy degree but who carry on natural healing activities within the limits of state and federal law. Acceptance (most often via state registry) of persons in this category does not confer a degree or license upon the individual, obviously, but acknowledges and affirms the legality of the work they are doing and records their practice statistically. Among the N.A.N.P.'s associate members (by registry.) are many chiropractors and physiotherapists, most of whom work closely with naturopathic physicians.
See Article III of the appended N.A.N.P. By-Laws.
1. Approved programs
Licensing and/or registration as a naturopathic physician by entities of government have been described in the above I.A.6-a. and b.
Regarding approval -for, membership in the N.A.N.P. and/or its affiliated associations, Article I of the appended By-Laws contains the stipulation that no state association or society or chapter (whatever its -nomenclature) shall be accepted for N.A.N.P. membership unless the applying group makes application on an N.A.N.P.-prescribed form or submits other evidence that its own membership requirements, Constitution, By-Laws, and Code of Ethics conform generally to those of N.A.N.P.
It follows that individual practitioners or applicants for associate membership must likewise agree to conform to N.A.N.P. is stipulated guidelines for professional conduct.
a. Personal members
Single practitioners must meet the minimal membership requirements of local N.A.N.P.-affiliated chapters, whose membership criteria must in turn meet N.A.N.P. conditions.
Members of N.A.N.P. are subject to the same re-approval of their membership as licensed practitioners are subject to suspension-of-license or revocation procedures in states with licensing statutes. N.A.N.P. and its affiliated chapters maintain intra-professional boards or committees empowered to hear public grievances and/or intra-naturopathic grievances against practitioners who violate the profession's state or national organizational Codes of Ethics. Likewise, state boards of examiners or other licensing or administrative agencies are empowered to review, suspend, revoke, and/or renew naturopathic licenses.
The N.A.N.P.'s current Code of Ethics, adopted in 1960, is appended.
b. Health care institutions
Naturopathy is primarily a single-practitioner profession. Some practitioners share practice with a colleague; a few have initiated specialized clinical practices (which were common prior to World War II). Because naturopathic physicians predominately treat patients in their offices or in patients' homes albeit many rest and convalescent homes admit naturopaths to care for patients in those facilities), no N.A.N.P. screening of institutions has been initiated. There are no solely-endowed naturopathic hospitals or similar facilities, hence criteria for evaluating such facilities have not been developed.
c. Educational institutions
In major heading IV, to follow, this subject is dealt with more comprehensively.
At present. the sole active and approved four-year college for the study of naturopathy is the National College of Naturopathic Medicine, legally headquartered at 1920 North Kilpatrick, Portland, Oregon 97217, but presently conducting classwork at 1327 North 45th Street, Seattle, Washington 98103. The college's President is Maxwell H. Morris, Th.D., at the Seattle address. The President of the college's Board of Trustees is Fred Loffler, N.D., 175 East Broadway, Vancouver 10, British Columbia, Canada. The Registrar is George Rombough, N.D., at the Seattle address.
The College is approved by N.A.N.P. and the Canadian Naturopathic Association. It is approved for training veterans under Public Law 550 and is certified to educate eligible veterans under Oregon's Veterans' Aid Act. The U.S. Department of Immigration has placed the College on its list of colleges and universities approved for the admittance and education of foreign students. A diploma from the College is recognized by State boards of examiners in all licensing states, and in Canada.
Administrative control over the College is vested in an elected Board of Trustees and the College President, Dean, and faculty. The College is owned by the Naturopathic Physicians Educational Foundation, organized under Oregon law as a non-profit corporation.
Current President of the Foundation is B. A. Smith, N.D., 870 Garden Valley Blvd., Roseburg, Oregon. Current Secretary-Treasurer is Lloyd Rapp, N.D., 103 North Umpqua, Sutherlin, Oregon.
N.A.N.P. calls and holds annual membership meetings, at times and places set by its Executive Committee or as determined by membership vote at the prior annual meeting.
Component chapters of N.A.N.P. likewise host educational seminars and/or meetings are identical: to promulgate organizational policy and stimulate post-Naturopathic Physicians Convention of May 9-11, 1968, the program for which is appended.
The purposes of both regional-local and national naturopathic membership meetings are identical: to promulgate organizational policy and stimulate postgraduate education.
Attendance is open to any bona fide member of N.A.N.P. or its affiliated local chapters.
Seminar or speech topics at such meetings range from legal-medical to intra- and inter-professional; i.e., legal responsibilities of naturopaths to their patients, research results or practice innovations from allied health care professions, new therapeutic techniques, new botanical medicines and their application, etc.
Not having a specific research facility, naturopathy does not pursue research as an organized collective. A primary reason for the lack of collective research is under-financing; i.e., grants-in-aid and other private foundation or government funds are not being made available to this profession.
Individual practitioners and graduate students have been and are currently working in the fields of physiotherapy, nutrition, and botanical medicine . . . particularly in relation to the management of chronically ill and geriatric patients. Likewise, N.A.N.P. committees on technique evaluation, physiotherapy analysis, and the management of orthopedic problems are currently at work in conjunction with faculty of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine.
Possibly much of the research we refer to above falls into the category "Extramural" . . . as being "outside . . . the walls . . . of an organized unit" (to cite Webster's definition).
In essence, the N.A.N.P. nurtures and encourages research, but cannot finance it on its own. N.A.N.P. can and does recognize intra-professional research by soliciting monographs for its seminars and for the publication "The Naturopath", which will be described more fully below.
The N.A.N.P. is currently completing plans for publication of a quarterly "Journal of Naturopathic Medicine," to be first printed in early 1969, for members and the interested lay public.
Currently, "The Naturopath" is published as an instrument to circulate professional -research papers by member and non-member naturopaths, news of botanical medicines and their application, and general news pertinent to health care fields allied with or germane to naturopathy.
Published monthly, "The Naturopath" reaches more than 5000 doctors (allopathy, chiropractic, osteopathy, and naturopathy) and laymen. It was first published in 1962 and its most recent edition prior to this report was August, 1968.
5. Copy of the current publication list
Copies of the last 12 editions of "The Naturopath" are appended.
C. ASSOCIATION RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER HEALTH PRACTITIONERS
1. Joint activities
In every instance where their cooperation has been solicited, the N.A.N.P. and its affiliated chapters have joined with, met with, or otherwise shared with other health care professions their body of technical knowledge.
A case in point, where formal interrelationships were involved, was the Oregon Interprofessional Health Council. In this instance, the Oregon Association of Naturopathic Physicians was a founding agency of this group, which was formed for the mutual exchange of healing arts knowledge. Naturopathy joined podiatry, chiropractic, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, osteopathy, and optometry to create the Council.
The N.A.N.P. works with every type of health care practitioner in legislative matters, urging the upgrading of all professions' standards by self-discipline and/or state or federal statute. In the several states where its chapters are operative, or in Washington, D.C. at the federal level, N.A.N.P. has worked closely with departments of welfare, industrial workmen's compensation boards, private and public rehabilitation agencies, boards of health, and other entities which deal with comprehensive health care.
Naturopathy's keenest immediate concern is with diet and nutrition, therefore the parent Association and its component chapters and members seek close relationships with dieticians, nursing in general, nutritionists, food chemists, organic chemists, botanists, horticulturists, and others concerned with man's basic sustenance: food.
2. Policies and activities endorsed
Organized naturopathy supports pure food and drug laws and their enforcement, the complete and free dissemination to all practitioners of newly-discovered techniques of treatment, and maximum inter-professional referral of patients when the specialty of an allied profession is called for.
N.A.N.P. has strongly endorsed federally endowed health care programs and equivalent private group -plans. In 1961, N.A.N.P. relayed to then-President John Kennedy its unqualified endorsement of "Medicare-Medicaid" (either King-Anderson or Kerr-Mills).
N.A.N.P. endorses strongly the F.D.A. stand on "dangerous drugs" and supports state legislatures, moves to curtail their unrestricted dispensing and use. The Association supports the concept of increased federal aid to health-care students and the institutions which educate them. The Association supports efforts to lower the price of remedial substances generally, especially for geriatric patients and pensioners.
3. Policies and activities not endorsed
N.A.N.P. opposes "fad" healing and quackery, but it likewise opposes the F.D.A. attitude concerning food supplements . . . proposals which would confine certain types of food supplements to a prescription basis. The Association is organically (i.e. "naturally") directed -- therefore it opposes over-use of toxic fertilizers and other chemicals which taint our foodstuffs and which harm our national ecology and individual health.
N..A.N.P. opposes, intra-professionally, criticism of other health care professions, unprofessional advertising or conduct by its members, and racial or religious discrimination among patients.
D. CODE OF ETHIOS
The.N.A.N.P. Code of Ethics is appended.
1. Official association statement
The appended Code of Ethics carries within it a set of policy statements which sum-up official attitudes of the N.A.N.P..
2. Describe disciplinary procedures
Grievances or actions against practitioners can originate with (1) state boards of examiners; (2) other state regulatory authorities (where naturopathy is not licensed per se) ; (3) committees or governing boards of affiliated chapters of N.A.N.P., or (4) with the governing officers of N.A.N.P. itself.
In the case of the first two groups of bodies cited, suspension or revocation of a practitioner's license or legal ability to practice will also result in the N.A.N.P.'s voiding a practitioners membership. Results of such action by agencies of government are usually forwarded to either the affiliated chapter's officers or to N.A.N.P. itself where there is no local chapter.
Within an affiliated chapter, such grievances are heard, testimony of the aggrieved party is solicited and heard, statements by the accused practitioner are heard, and a decision is rendered.
Intra-professionally, an "aggrieved person" can be a fellow naturopathic practitioner, a practitioner in an allied health care field, an officer of N.A.N.P. or an affiliated chapter, or a layman at large.
Some disciplinary matters are not appealed to the N.A.N.P., and others come before only the N.A.N.P. (where a practitioner is an N.A.N.P. members but in a state with no local chapter). N.A.N.P. is, however, bound to suspend or expel a member whom the lower, affiliated chapter has found guilty of professional misconduct, or whom a Board of Examiners has adjudged guilty. Likewise, a practitioner suspended or expelled by N.A.N.P. will not be eligible for membership in any local chapter unless and until he or she is re-accepted for membership by N.A.N.P.
Disciplinary matters can be routed from N.A.N.P. to a local society, or from a local society to N.A.N.P. -- depending upon who makes the accusation and the membership status of the accused. In all instances whether either the national or a state association originates the disciplinary hearings, the results of those hearings -- if culminating in expulsion or suspension -- are forwarded to state boards of examiners or other regulatory authorities for their consideration and action.
Index ||| Part II,
III, IV, V
Quackwatch Home Page