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The pamphlets listed below were published by Lewman Design Laboratories of Kansas City, Missouri, between 1977 and 1978. To see them, click here: The Patient’s Guide to the Healing Art of Chiropractic The Patient’s Guide to Allergy and Diet The Patient’s Guide to Low Back Pain and Associated Leg Pain The Patient’s Guide to Slipped …
The pamphlets listed below were published by Lewman Design Laboratories of Kansas City, Missouri, between 1977 and 1978. To see them, click here:
- The Patient’s Guide to the Healing Art of Chiropractic
- The Patient’s Guide to Allergy and Diet
- The Patient’s Guide to Low Back Pain and Associated Leg Pain
- The Patient’s Guide to Slipped Dicc
- The Patient’s Guide to Recurrent Headaches
- The Patient’s Guide to Bursitis and Shoulder Pain
- The Patient’s Guide to Enuresis (Bedwetting)
- The Patient’s Guide to Sports Injuries
These pamphlets were marketed in the 1980s by Chirocare, Inc., and Doctors Marketing Systems, Inc., both of which had the same address in Knoxville, Tennessee. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1984 and 1988. To see them, click here: Promotion to Chiropractors Health Comes from Within and So Should Your Practice Promotion to Patients …
These pamphlets were marketed in the 1980s by Chirocare, Inc., and Doctors Marketing Systems, Inc., both of which had the same address in Knoxville, Tennessee. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1984 and 1988. To see them, click here:
Promotion to Chiropractors
- Health Comes from Within and So Should Your Practice
Promotion to Patients
- The Roadmap to Health (24 pages)
- Your Greatest Loss May Occur after the Wreck
- Your Wrist
- Welcome to the Beginning of the End of Your Pain
Your Roadmap to Health greatly exaggerates what chiropractors can do.
Allergy falsely states that “in almost every case of allergy, there is an underlying condition cause known as sub-lux-a-tion. This results in reduced nerve and blood supply and immune weakness.”
Headache falsely states that “most headaches are thge result of nerve pressure at the base of the skull.”Hide Full Content
These pamphlets were published between 1969 and 1971 by the Biological Arts Company. I am unable to find any background information about the company. To see the pamphlets, click here. Subluxation Prevent Spinal Disabilities Structural Spinal Disorders Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders Back Pain Your Child’s Posture and Health “As a Twig Is Bent …
These pamphlets were published between 1969 and 1971 by the Biological Arts Company. I am unable to find any background information about the company. To see the pamphlets, click here.
- Prevent Spinal Disabilities
- Structural Spinal Disorders
- Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders
- Back Pain
- Your Child’s Posture and Health
- “As a Twig Is Bent . . . So Grows the Child”
- Head. Neck and Shoulder Pain
- Recurrent Headaches and Chiropractic
- Recurrent Occipital Headache . . . .Due to Faulty Spinal Alignment and Mobility
- Low Back Pain with Associated Leg Pain
- Nerve Pain . . . Due to Hidden Spinal Disorders
- Shoulder – Neck – Arm Pain and Chiropractic
- Sciatica and Chiropractic
- Slipped Disc and Chiropractic
- Spine and Shoulder Pain
- Your Spine and Muscle Pain
- Your Spine, Nerves and Health
- Your Spine-Nerves and Chiropractic
- Your Spine-Nerves and Whiplash Nerve Injury
- Whiplash Spinal Injury
Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders falsely claims that “minute deviations from normal alignment and mobility of a single spinal segment may cause not only disabling back pain but may also interfere with the normal nerve supply of the part of the body and thereby affect the total health pattern of the individual. . . . It logically follows that when a misaligned vertebra pinches or irritates a nerve supplying any part of the body whether that part is a back muscle when a misaligned vertebra pinches or irritates a nerve supplying any part of the body, whether that part is a back muscle, a leg or a vital organ . . . stomach, kidney etc. that organ may suffer pain and loss of function.”
Your Child’s Posture and Health falsely suggests that “minor falls, strains, and daily incidents in the life of an active child is a major cause of childhood spinal disorders” that, if undetected and untreated “may develop into major disabilities.”
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These pamphlets were acquired during the early 1970s by investigators who visited chiropractors in Eastern Pennsylvania. I am unable to find any background information about the publisher. To see the pamphlets, click here. Think Chiropractic First Don’t Keep It a Secret Blame for the Nation’s Poor Health Is Misdirected Athletic Injuries Chest Pain Headaches Sciatica …
These pamphlets were acquired during the early 1970s by investigators who visited chiropractors in Eastern Pennsylvania. I am unable to find any background information about the publisher. To see the pamphlets, click here.
- Think Chiropractic First
- Don’t Keep It a Secret
- Blame for the Nation’s Poor Health Is Misdirected
- Athletic Injuries
- Chest Pain
- Industrial Injuries
- Plan Now: Take Your Family to Chiropractor Today
- How Parents Ignore Children’s Spine
- Why Organized Medicine Opposes Any New Health Principle
“How Parents Ignore Children’s Spine” asserts that “periodic spinal examinations of your child’s spine and nerve system should be a major part of regular health routine.”
“Don’t Keep It a Secret” claims that”as more and more millions of Americans become chiropractiuc patienbts, health care costs will be lowered.”
“Plan Now: Take Your Family to Chiropractor Today” claims that “headaches, abnormal fatigue, nervousness, sleeplessness, indigestion, colds, stiff neck, joint pains, muscular aches and pains are only a few of the early warning signals that a chiropractic adjustment is indicated.”
These claims have no scientific support.Hide Full Content
RFS Publishing, of Rhinebeck, New York, was owned by Richard F. Smith, D.C. and Frances A. Smith. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1970 and 1978. To see them, click here. Chiropractic Health Care Blood Pressure Bursitis Can Exercise Cure Back Pain? Headache Questions & Answers Migraine: The Terrible Headache! Sciatica Slipped Disk Ubiquitous …
RFS Publishing, of Rhinebeck, New York, was owned by Richard F. Smith, D.C. and Frances A. Smith. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1970 and 1978. To see them, click here.
- Chiropractic Health Care
- Blood Pressure
- Can Exercise Cure Back Pain?
- Headache Questions & Answers
- Migraine: The Terrible Headache!
- Slipped Disk
- Ubiquitous Headache
- Anatomy oif Whiplash Neck In juries
The “Chiropractic Health Care” Pamphlet claimed that “regular chiropractic examination and analysis of your body structure is an effective preventive means of maintaining health and eliminating the need for dangerous crisis sick care” and that “everyone alive can live longer, healthier lives with the help of chiropractic.”
The “Migraine” pamphlet claimed that chiropractic can provide permanent relief of symptoms by attacking their cause.
The “Blood Pressure” pamphlet claimed thatregular chiropractic care can “help keep your body functioning normally and keep your blood pressure within normal limits.”
These claims have no scientific support.Hide Full Content
These pamphlets were originally published in 1976 and 1977 by Cindy Publications of Grain Valley, New York. The company’s president was George T. Hackleman, D.C. To see the pamphlets, click here. Messages for Adults The pamphlets as a group suggest that virtually everything can be caused by pinched nerves and corrected by spinal adjustments. X-ray …
These pamphlets were originally published in 1976 and 1977 by Cindy Publications of Grain Valley, New York. The company’s president was George T. Hackleman, D.C. To see the pamphlets, click here.
Messages for Adults
The pamphlets as a group suggest that virtually everything can be caused by pinched nerves and corrected by spinal adjustments.
- X-ray and Chiropractic
- New Chiropractic Patient
- Pinched Nerves
- Arm & Shoulder Pain
- High Blood Pressure
- Migraine Headache
- Nerves Just Nerves
The “Nerves Just Nerves” pamphlet claims that “nerve ‘short circuit'” can cause “dizziness, headaches, nervousness, eye and ear problems, high blood pressure, chronic tiredness, migraine headaches, nervous breakdown, glandular troubles, allergy, skin disorders, gall bladder troubles, poor circulation, low blood pressure, rheumatism, and scores of uncomfortable symptoms.”
The “Pinched Nerve” pamphlet claims that “pinched nerves can masquerade as ulcers, eczema, bursitis, bronchitis, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, thyroid trouble . . . the list is endless.”
The Migraine Headache” pamphlet claims that chiropractors can “banish the migraine forever’ by releasing the pitched nerves.
The “High Blood Pressure” pamphlet states that “since the mechanism of blood pressure is controlled by the nervous system . . . the chiropractor is the doctor to ask if you think you are suffering from high blood pressure.”
These claims have no scientific support.
Messages for Children
These pamphlets describe a chiropractor as a “friend,” suggest that that spinal misalignments can make them feel bad, “feeling bad,” and and recommend keeping the spine “on track” with chiropractic adjustments.
- Why Do I Go to a Chiropractor?
- Now I’ll Make It Plain. . . Your Spine’s Like a tTain!
- Have You Got Nerve!
- Is That Spine Mine?
There is no scientific evidence that children need periodic spinal checkups or adjustments.Hide Full Content
Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide …
Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusions, which the board considered “experimental.” The accusation also stated that Dr. Levy’s records were not accurate in that they were “illegible, disorganized, and incomplete” and contained no consent form, no indication of what dosage was used, and no list of the patient’s problems. In 2008, the board ordered Levy to pay $15,000 for costs and serve on probation for five years, during which he was required to take a course on record-keeping and have his records monitored for one year.
In 2017, Levy was accused of negligence, inadequate record-keeping, and/or administering treatments that were not medically indicated to seven patients and one undercover investigator from the board. The case was settled with a stipulation under which Levy was assessed $15,000 for costs and serve five more years of probation, during which he was required to (a) complete a clinical competency assessment and training program; (b) take continuing education courses in pharmacology and medical ethics; and (c) have his practice monitored for at least two years.
The Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Web site indicates that between 1996 and 2003, Levy was suspended once, placed on probation three times, and fined four times. The details are not posted, but the 2017 California complaint states that the suspension was due to a conviction for fraudulent billing.
OSTEOPATHIC MEDICAL BOARD OF CALIFORNIA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
|In the Matter of the Accusation Against:
HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.
Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Certificate No. 20A4148
|Case No. 00-2005-001494
1. Donald Krpan (Complainant) brings this Accusation solely in his officcapacity as the Executive Director (A) of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California.
2. On or about August 3, 1977, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issued Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate No. 20A4148 to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. (Respondent). The Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate was in full force and effect at all times relevant to the charges brought herein and will expire on February 29, 2008, unless renewed.
3. This Accusation is brought before the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, under the authority of the following laws. All section references are to the Business and Professions Code unless otherwise indicated.
4. Section 2234 of the Code states:
“The Division of Medical Quality shall take action against any licensee who is charged with unprofessional conduct. In addition to other provisions of this article, unprofessional conduct includes, but is not limited to, the following:
“(a) Violating or attempting to violate, directly or indirectly, assisting in or abetting the violation of, or conspiring to violate any provision of this chapter.
“(b) Gross negligence.
“(c) Repeated negligent acts. To be repeated, there must be two or more negligent acts or omissions. An initial negligent act or omission followed by a separate and distinct departure from the applicable standard of care shall constitute repeated negligent acts.
“(1) An initial negligent diagnosis fo11owed by an act or omission medically appropriate for that negligent diagnosis of the patient shall constitute a single negligent act.
“(2) When the standard of care requires a change in the diagnosis, act, or omission that constitutes the negligent act described in paragraph (I), including, but not limited to, a reevaluation of the diagnosis or a change in treatment, and the licensee’s conduct departs from the applicable standard of care, each departure constitutes a separate and distinct breach of the standard of care.
“(e) The commission of any act involving dishonesty or corruption which is substantially related to the qualifications, functions, or duties of a physician and surgeon. “(f) Any action or conduct which would have warranted the denial of a certificate. “(g) The practice of medicine from this state into another state or country without meeting the legal requirements of that state or country for the practice of medicine. Section 2314 shall not apply to this subdivision. This subdivision shall become operative upon the implementation of the proposed registration program described in Section 2052.5.”
5. Section 3600 of the Code states that the law governing licentiates of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California is found in the Osteopathic Act and in Chapter 5 of Division 2, relating to medicine.
6. Section 3600-2 of the Code states:
“The Osteopathic Medical Board of California shall enforce those portions of the Medical Practice Act identified as Article 12 (commencing with Section 2220), of Chapter 5 of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, as to persons who hold certificates subject to the jurisdiction of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, however, persons who elect to practice using the term or suffix 11M.D.11 as provided in Section 2275 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, shall not be subject to this section, and the Medical Board of California shall enforce the provisions of the article as to persons who make the election. After making the election, each person so electing shall apply for renewal of his or her certificate to the Medical Board of California, and the Medical Board of California shall issue renewal certificates in the same manner as other renewal certificates are issued by it.”
7. Section 2266 of the Code states: “The failure of a physician and surgeon to maintain adequate and accurate records relating to the provision of services to their patients constitutes unprofessional conduct.”
8. Section 125.3 of the Code states, in pertinent part, that the Board may request the administrative law judge to direct a licentiate found to have committed a violation or violations of the licensing act to pay a sum not to exceed the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of the case.
FIRST CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
9. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (b) in that he was grossly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P.K. The circumstances are as follows:
10. Between on or about February 16, 2004, and March 11, 2005, P.K., a then 82-year-old male, was a patient of Respondent. Respondent saw P.K. for approximately 65 office visits and respondent treated P.K. on three or four home visits.
11. During this time, most of the care provided to P.K. by Respondent was directed to five chronic medical problems which included COPD, chronic olecranon bursitis, osteoarthritis of the knees, lower urinary tract symptoms and chronic oropharyngeal discomfort attributed to a fungal infection (yeast).
12. Respondent did not believe that P.K.’s oropharyngeal discomfort or respiratory distress and possible fungal (yeast) infection was being adequately treated with conventional therapy and recommended to P.K. that he undergo a series of treatments by intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide. Although Respondent knew and told his patient that the use of hydrogen peroxide was experimental, he did not follow approved research protocol for its use nor did he document the patient’s consent to the experimental use of hydrogen peroxide. Respondent treated P.K. with hydrogen peroxide on several occasions.
13. Patient P.K. also suffered from chronic olecranon bursitis. The olecranon is located at the posterior point of the elbow and has a synovial membrane that may become affected by gout, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, hemorrhage, or trauma. Fluid accumulated in the patient’s olecranon bursa and Respondent treated the condition by joint aspiration on eight occasions. On or about January 10, 2005, following the seventh aspiration, Respondent sent the synovial fluid to a laboratory for analysis but did not request a bacterial culture. Respondent never recommended surgical removal as definitive treatment.
14. Between on or about January 27, 2005, and February 9, 2005, Respondent diagnosed P.K. with interstitial fibrosis and treated him with Imuran (azathioprine). The medical records do not contain medical evidence or findings to support the diagnosis or the use of Imuran, a powerful drug with potential adverse reactions. Also, Respondent did. not consider that the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide might be the cause of P.K.’s condition.
15. The Respondent’s medical records for P.K. are not adequate or accurate in that they are illegible, disorganized, and incomplete. There is no initial history and physical examination of the patient, no general consent form, no specific consent form for the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide treatment, no report of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used when administered, and no problem list.
SECOND CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
Repeated Negligent Acts)
16. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (c) in that he was repeatedly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9- 15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
THIRD CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
17. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (d) in that he was incompetent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9-1 5 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
FOURTH CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
18. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2266 in that his medical records for patient P.K. are neither adequate nor accurate as set forth in paragraphs 9-15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
WHEREFORE, Complainant requests that a hearing be held on the matters herein alleged, and that following the hearing, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issue a decision:
1. Revoking or suspending Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Number 20A4148, issued to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.
2. Ordering HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. to pay the Osteopathic Medical Board of California the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of this case, pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 125.3; and, if placed on probation, the costs of probation monitoring; and,
3. Taking such other and further action as deemed necessary and proper.
Osteopathic Medical Board of California
State of California
BILL LOCKYER, Attorney General of the State of California
HARINDER K. KAPUR, State Bar No. 198769
Deputy Attorney General California
Department of Justice
110 West “A” Street, Suite 1100
San Diego, CA 92101
P.O. Box 85266
San Diego, CA 92186-5266
Telephone: (619) 645-2075
Facsimile: (619) 645-2061
Attorneys for Complainant
This page was posted on March 25, 2010.Hide Full Content
In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized Public Disservice Announcement “Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria …
In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized
Public Disservice Announcement
“Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria put into their veins?
The ad horrified the health officials who saw it, and not just because of the bad grammar and poor spelling, such as pus with two s’s. An investigator in FDA’s Detroit District showed the district’s consumer affairs officer (CAO), and she called the newspaper. None of the editors could fathom how an ad so misleading and grossly inaccurate had gotten onto the “Back-To-School” pages. Not only were the statements about vaccines completely false, but the ad falsely claimed to be a public service announcement. The name Taylor Straight Chiropractic Center was in large type (along with the phone numbers and office hours) and the copy read: “Health comes totally from the body. Take care of your health and your family’s health through a spinal exam today.” The editors agreed with the CAO that the ad was a disservice to the paper’s readers. At her suggestion, they printed an editorial rebuttal based on an interview with the director of the Wayne County Department of Public Health. The editor also had a few words with the newspaper’s advertising staff.
The CAO contacted the Michigan Department of Health, which promptly wrote a “letter to the editor,” which, when published, termed the chiropractic ad “a flagrant distortion of facts.”
No vaccine is produced for, required of, or given to children which uses pus or dead bacteria from sick animals. All vaccines are given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, not into veins as the ad implies.” The letter pointed out that before vaccines were available, thousands of children were crippled—or killed—by diphtheria, whooping cough, rubella, measles, and polio. Before polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, for instance, 30,000 to 60,000 cases of polio were reported each year. Now there are fewer than 25 cases per year.
The letter added: “Ironically, one of the few cases of diphtheria reported in 1979 occurred in the 5-year-old son of a California chiropractor, who had signed a waiver against immunizations. The boy was the only unimmunized child in his class. He subsequently died of the disease.”
What worried both Federal and State agencies was that the Detroit newspaper was part of a large chain of weekly papers. The health department contacted all county and local health departments across the State, advising them to watch for similar advertisements. The department also contacted the State Attorney General’s office and the Department of Licensing and Regulation. Those agencies are investigating the matter and are considering taking action against the chiropractor for unethical conduct.
Recently, when I saw this article, I was curious about whether the chiropractor was ever disciplined. Searching with Google, I was able to determine that the ad had been placed in the Detroit Free Press by Joseph L. Belcher, D.C.
I also found that on May 6, 1981, the Lansing State Journal published an article titled “Vaccine Issue Divides Board,” which said that the board was equally divided about whether to pursue a complaint and had tabled the matter without settling a date for reconsideration. No further action was taken.Hide Full Content
Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition …
Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition quackery. In 1986, he was awarded honorary membership in the American Dietetic Association. From 1987 through 1989, he taught health education at The Pennsylvania State University. He is listed in Marquis Who‘s Who in America and received the 2001 Distinguished Service to Health Education Award from the American Association for Health Education. He is also a board member of Prescription Justice, a nonprofit group that is working toward lower drug prices. His research library, pictured below, houses more than 5,000 books and 100,000 documents and recordings collected over a 50-year period.
|An expert in medical communications, Dr. Barrett operates 23 Web sites; co-edits Consumer Health Digest (a free weekly electronic newsletter); and has been a peer-review panelist for several top medical journals. He has written thousands of articles and delivered more than 300 talks at colleges, universities, medical schools, and professional meetings. His 53 books include The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America and eight editions of the college textbook Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions. One book he edited, Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm?, by Charles Marshall, Ph.D., won the American Medical Writers Association award for best book of 1983 for the general public and became a special publication of Consumer Reports Books. His other classics include Dubious Cancer Treatment, published by the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society; Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds, published by Consumer Reports Books; The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods, published by Prometheus Books; and Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods, published by the American Medical Association. His most recent book, Homeopathy in America: The Ups and Downs of a Medical Heresy, was published in 2019 by Kindle Books. From 2012 through 2016, he served as North American co-editor of the journal Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapy (FACT). His media appearances have included Dateline, the Today Show, Good Morning America, ABC Prime Time, Donahue, CNN, National Public Radio, and more than 200 radio and television talk show interviews.|
Since moving to North Carolina in 2007, Dr. Barrett has been swimming competitively and has won 140 state championship events, 40 medals in national events, and 16 medals in international events and has set 19 state records. At the 2012 U.S. Masters Spring Nationals, he and three teammates earned Relay All-American Awards for the fastest times swum in the U.S. in 2012 in the age 75-79 men’s 200 freestyle and 200 medley relay events. During the 2013 season, he won 3 three gold medals at the North Carolina Senior Games, 3 silver medals at the National Senior Games, and became a world champion by winning the age 80-84 men’s 50-meter butterfly event at the Huntsman World Senior Games. In 2014, he won 2 gold, 1 silver, and 2 bronze medals at the U.S. Masters Summer National Championships and 5 gold and 1 silver medal at the North Carolina Senior Games. In 2016, he became certified as an instructor in the U.S. Masters Adult Learn-to-Swim program.
The Center for Inquiry began maintaining the Quackwatch network of Web sites in February 2020 and will receive Dr. Barrett’s research library later this year.
- Curriculum Vitae
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How to Contact Dr. Barrett (Please mention how you found this Web site)
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When time permits, your questions related to consumer health will be answered by e-mail. The most interesting ones will be posted (without the sender’s name) to this Web site. Before sending a question, please search Quackwatch to see whether the topic has been covered! If you prefer to phone, please send an email message first so I can retain your contact information.
This page was revised on March 5, 2020.Hide Full Content
Appendix C: Number of Chiropractors in Practice ©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C. It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, …
Number of Chiropractors in Practice
©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C.
It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, however. Dividing the conglomeration of chiropractic technics among practicing chiropractors has taken its toll of practitioners as well as its toll of chiropractic colleges. The practice failure among newly-graduated chiropractors is extremely high, partly because of the lack of recognition and reciprocity with other healing arts, and partly because of the severe economic competition between chiropractors adhering to one school of thought or another. One chiropractic publication stated that 54% of all chiropractic graduates fail during the first year of practice 
A January, 1960, chiropractic publication stated that there were 30,000 chiropractors practicing in 1930, and that this figure had dwindled to less than 20,000. “At one time or another there have been 88, yes, 88 Chiropractic colleges,” the publication advised. “Today, there are 17 in existence. Our schools are dying, our numbers are decreasing and yet we remain in our ivory towers, ignorant in our bliss, apathetic in our attitudes, refusing to see and to admit that we are a dying profession and worse yet unwilling to do anything about it.” 
It is difficult to understand why figures on the number of chiropractic colleges and chiropractic practitioners will differ so markedly from one source to another, or even from the same source from time to time. In trying to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors, one would probably inquire first of licensing boards in each state. This may not give a correct count, however, since a good number of chiropractors apparently fail to succeed in practice and, as a result, go into other fields of work. Licenses are often maintained in a state by such practitioners, along with those retired. In California in 1958, the state with the largest number of chiropractors, only 54% of more than 4,000 licensed chiropractors were in full-time practice, with some 23% of the total number in part-time practice. 
Figures compiled by the Bureau of the Census would probably give the most accurate count of the number of chiropractors.
The 1930 census report stated that there were 11,916 chiropractors designated as “gainful workers.” In 1940, this figure had decreased to 10,629 “employed” chiropractors. In 1950, however, the census reported that there were 13,091 chiropractors in the experienced civilian labor force (the National Chiropractic Association reported that there were more than 20,000 licensed chiropractors). According to prepublication reports released in December of 1962, the 1960 census counted 14,360 chiropractors in the “experienced civilian labor force” (which includes both employed and unemployed practitioners), showing a 9.7% increase over the 1950 figures.
- 1. Nimmo RL. The Receptor. Volume 1, Number 4, 1959.
- 2. Fountain Head News. Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, January, 1960.
- 3. Chiropractic in California. Los Angeles: Stanford Research Institute and the Haynes Foundation, 1960.
Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors. Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William …
Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors.
Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William M. London, Ed.D., M.P.H, with help from Stephen Barrett, M.D. It summarizes scientific reports; legislative developments; enforcement actions; news reports; Web site evaluations; recommended and nonrecommended books; research tips; and other information relevant to consumer protection and consumer decision-making. It also calls attention to new articles on our Web sites.
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Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites. What You Can Do If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or …
Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites.
What You Can Do
If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or audiotapes that you no longer need, please donate them to Quackwatch. My mailing address is Stephen Barrett, MD; 287 Fearrington Post, Pittsboro, NC 27312. If you would lkike to be reimbursed for the cost of shipping, let me know before you send anything.Hide Full Content
Lane Labs Ordered to Stop Illegal Marketing (6/04) PROven Serpentarium Enjoined (3/82) Injunction against Nutrilite (Amway predecessor) (8/51)
- Lane Labs Ordered to Stop Illegal Marketing (6/04)
- PROven Serpentarium Enjoined (3/82)
- Injunction against Nutrilite (Amway predecessor) (8/51)
Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. …
Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. Please contact us if:
- You encounter something are not sure about.
- You can provide a description or a URL describing a method we have listed.
- You have expert knowledge of a listed method.
- You have undergone any of the procedures below and can provide us with a detailed account of your experience.
The methods we are interested in so far are:
- Anti-Scoliosis Vibration-Decompression Method
- Buteyko breathing technique (link to another site)
- EEG biofeedback for ADHD or stress-related disorders
- Enzyme potentiated desensitization
- Egoscue method
- Hinz protocol for Parkinson’s disease
- Referenced EEG
- Sensory-motor integration therapy
- Theratec MS scanner
- Tomatis Method
- Transpersonal psychology
**Note: Listing of a method on this page does not necessarily mean there is anything wrong with it. It merely means we have been asked and are seeking information.Hide Full Content
In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included: Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia …
In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included:
- Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies
- Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia
- Kirlian photography for “research purposes”
- Laetrile instead of standard cancer treatment
- Inappropriate use of chelation therapy to treat atherosclerosis
Vance appealed to state and federal courts but lost. In 1987, when the Texas Medical Board was considering Utah’s action, Vance surrendered his Texas license. In 1996, Texas denied his application for reinstatement. He died in 2017 at the age of 83.
BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION
STATE OF UTAH
|IN THE MATTER OF THE LICENSE
TO PRACTICE AS AN OSTEOPATHIC
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON OF
ROBERT B. VANCE, D.O.
FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Leon A. Halgren for the Division of Registration.
Robert McRae, Attorney for Respondent.
Pursuant to notice duly served by certified mail, this matter cane on regularly for hearing on the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day of January, 1981 and also on the 2nd day of February, 1981 before the Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah and the Division of Registration. Evidence was offered and received, and the Osteopathic v, having been advised in the premises, now makes and enters to the Director of the Division of Registration the following Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and its Recommended Order based thereon:
F’INDINGS OF F’ACT
1. We find that osteopathic physicians and surgeons should maintain and uphold the sane standards of care as medical doctors in caring for and treating their patients. When a physician assumes primary care of a patient by advising a patient to discontinue medications or instructions from a previous physician, the new physician should do a complete physical examination and record such. The physical examination should include at least examination of the heart, lungs and abdomen. No intravenous solutions should be given without a physical examination (including heart and lungs) being performed. We also find that a physician must be in attendance when intravenous solutions are given unless it is an emergency. We find that Robert B. Vance did not abide by and follow these standards in his treatment of patients and in particular in his care and treatment of James Nickeson.
2. We have had testimony that preventive medicine as practiced by Dr. Vance and his colleagues should be practiced in addition to the basic (orthodox) standards of medicine in the United States. We find that Dr. Vance has not maintained these basic standards in his practice.
3. Inasmuch as Chelation Therapy is not accepted among medical standards as a proper method of treatment for atherosclerosis in the United States, it should not be prescribed as such be a physician in general practice.
4. We find that Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) should not be prescribed in lieu of standard accepted medical treatment for a patient suffering from cancer.
5. We find that Robert B. Vance diagnosed hypoglycemia too often without adequately ruling out other diseases or body dysfunctions.
6. We find that in many cases Dr. Vance led many patients into believing that his form of therapy was more beneficial than treatment which is recognized as proper or appropriate in the medical profession.
7. Dr. Vance’s use of Kinesiology (having patient hold arm out, with the resulting dropping of the arm determining food allergies) as the sole test to determine food allergies is totally unfounded.
8. As to the allegations in the petition (referring to doctor placing his hand on top and thinking of various foods, with the referring to the paragraphs of the petition) we make specific findings as to each such allegation as follows:
A. We find the allegations to be true in that Robert B. Vance provided unnecessary and unproven medical treatment for atherosclerosis by giving Chelation therapy.
B. No finding.
C. No finding.
D. No finding.
E. We find the allegation to be true and substantially supported by the evidence.
F. No finding.
G. We find the allegations to be true in that the evidence showed that Robert B. Vance did not do a physical examination; he used iridology, an unaccepted and unproven method of diagnosis, and diagnosed hypothyroidism from a low axillary temperature with disregard for normal laboratory tests.
H. We find the allegations to be true. He charged for a Cronogram (Kirlian Photography) which he testified he was doing for research purposes, without notifying the patient of such fact and admitted its use as a diagnostic tool was of questionable value.
I. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
J. No finding.
K. No finding.
L. No finding.
M. No finding.
N. No finding.
O. No finding.
P. No finding.
Q. No finding.
R. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
S. No finding.
T. No finding.
U. No finding.
V. No finding.
W. No finding.
X. No finding.
Y. No finding.
Z. No finding.
AA. No finding.
BB. No finding.
CC. No finding.
DD. No finding.
EE. No finding.
FF. No finding.
GG. No finding.
HH. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
II. We find the allegations to be true and fully supported by the evidence. In the Nickeson case there was evidence of gross negligence on the part of Dr. Vance. He should not have encouraged the family to have the patient leave the Casper, Wyoming Hospital; the diagnostic process had not been completed. He instituted intravenous therapy in his office before doing a physical examination; in fact, he never did no a physical examination. The patient was treated with questionable therapy in lieu of standard medical treatment. Dr. Vance did not see the patient in excess of five days while the patient, not under the direct control of Robert B. Vance, was receiving daily I.V. therapy. He discontinued the Coumadin therapy without examining the patient’s leg or thrombophlebitis or monitoring clotting times. Mrs. Nickeson, the patient’s mother, purchased oral Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) in Dr. Vance’s office from Margaret Smith. We feel that he is responsible for anything that takes place in his office. In general, this case was beyond the expertise of a general practitioner.
In spite of the fact that he has gained a great deal of knowledge in the field of preventative medicine, assuming primary care for a patient such as Mr. Nickeson was beyond the scope of his additional knowledge.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
a, the basis of the Findings of Fact the Osteopathic Committee concludes that the Respondent Robert B. Vance is subject to the provisions of Section 58-12-36(15) Utah Code Annotated 1953, as amended and that he has committed acts of sufficient severity amounting to unprofessional conduct as set forth 1n said Section 58-12-36(15) on which to base disciplinary action for revocation o: his license to practice as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah as hereinafter provided.
The Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah recommends to the Director of the Division of Registration that the license of the Respondent, Robert B. Vance, as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah be revoked.
Dated this 2nd day of February, 1981.
Leland D. Shafer, D.O.
Victoria Greenwood, D.O.
This article was posted on January 20, 2020.Hide Full Content
General Articles Signs of a “Quacky” Web Site Fifteen Ways to Spot an Internet Bandit Guideline Issues AMA Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites (link to JAMA) HONcode Principles: What Do They Signify? HONcode Violators Untrustworthy Organizations in the Healthfinder Database URAC Violators Web Site Ratings Systems Questioned Links to Highly Recommended Sites American …
- AMA Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites (link to JAMA)
- HONcode Principles: What Do They Signify?
- HONcode Violators
- Untrustworthy Organizations in the Healthfinder Database
- URAC Violators
- Web Site Ratings Systems Questioned
Links to Highly Recommended Sites
- American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
- Chirobase: Quackwatch’s skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and current practices
- Internet Health Pilot
- MLM Watch: Quackwatch’s guide to multilevel marketing
- National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF)
- Links to Skeptical Information Sources
- Links to Other Valuable Sites
Sites Recommended with Reservations
These major sites are mostly reliable but have “blind spots” that damage their credibility. Their reliable parts can be very useful, but some parts should be disregarded or viewed with caution.
- Arthritis Foundation (avoid information on “complementary” and “alternative” methods)
- WebMD Health (articles related to “complementary and alternative medicine” are highly misleading)
Nonrecommended Major Sites
Each of these sites provides a huge amount of information, most or all of which promotes unsubstantiated theories and/or methods. They may be useful to researchers seeking descriptions of these theories and methods from their proponents. However, they should be avoided by persons seeking high-quality information on which to base a health-related decision.
- Ask Dr. Weil
- Doctors Medical Library
- The Anti-Aging Medical Clinic
- Natural News (Mike Adams)
- Prevention Magazine
- Progressive Radio Network (Gary Null)
Nonrecommended Minor SitesHide Full Content
The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page. Chiropractic Identity and Practices Gliedt JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: A survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:4, 2015. Murphy DR …
The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page.
Chiropractic Identity and Practices
- Gliedt JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: A survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:4, 2015.
- Murphy DR and others. How can chiropractic become a respected mainstream profession? The example of podiatry. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 16:10, 2008.
- Walker B. The new chiropractic. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 24:26, 2016. Spotlights serious practices that damn the reputation of chiropractors.
- Funk MF and others. The prevalence of the term subluxation in chiropractic degree program curricula throughout the world. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 26:24, 2018.
- Leboeuf-Yde C and others. Chiropractic, one big unhappy family: Better together or apart? Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 27:4, 2019.
Advertising and Marketing
- Ernst E, Gilbey A. Chiropractic claims in the English-speaking world. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123:36-44, 2010] Survey found that unsubstantiated claims are very common on chiropractic Web sites.
- Grod JP, Sikorski D, Keating J. Unsubstantiated claims in patient brochures from the largest state, provincial, and national chiropractic associations and research agencies. JMPT 24:514-519, 2001.
- Sikorski DM, Grod JP. The unsubstantiated Web site claims of chiropractic colleges in Canada and the United States. Journal of Chiropractic Education 17:113-119, 2003. Found that the Web sites of more than half the chiropractic colleges in North America make unsubstantiated claims for clinical theories or methods.
Chiropractic care, cost and effectiveness
- Assendelft WJJ, Bouter LM. Does the goose really lay golden eggs? A methodological review of workmen’s compensation studies. JMPT 16:161-168, 1993.
- Carey TS and others. The outcomes and costs of care for acute low back pain among patients seen by primary care practitioners, chiropractors, and orthopedic surgeons. New England Journal of Medicine 333:913-917, 1995.
- Goncalves G and others. Effect of chiropractic treatment on primary or early secondary prevention: A systematic review with a pedagogic approach. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:10, 2018. Literature review found no evidence that chiropractic treatment can prevent disease in general.
- Shekelle, PG and others. The effect of cost sharing on the use of chiropractic services. Medical Care 34:863-872, 1996.
- Skargren EI and others. One-year follow-up comparison of the cost and effectiveness of chiropractic and physiotherapy as primary management for back pain. Subgroup analysis, recurrence, and additional health care utilization. Spine 23:1875-1883, 1998.
Reliability of chiropractic procedures
- French SD, Green S, Forbes A. Reliability of chiropractic methods commonly used to detect manipulable lesions in patients with chronic low-back pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23:231-238, 2000.
- Haas M. The reliability of reliability. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 19:199-208, 1991.
- Hawk C and others. Preliminary study of the reliability of assessment procedures for indications for chiropractic adjustments of the lumbar spine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 22:382-389, 1999.
- Hestoek L, Leboeuf-Yde C. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23:258-275, 2000.
- Jenkins HJ and others. Current evidence for spinal X-ray use in the chiropractic profession: a narrative review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:48, 2018. Concluded that (a) in the vast majority of cases who present to chiropractors, the potential benefit from spinal X-rays does not outweigh the potential harms and (b) spinal x-rays should not be performed as a routine part of chiropractic practice,
- Mirtz TA and others. An epidemiological examination of the subluxation construct using Hill’s criteria of causation. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 17:13, 2009.
- Dorey TT, Phillips RB. Comparison of entrance requirements for health care professions. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 20:86-91, 1997.
- Freedman KB, Bernstein J. The adequacy of medical school education in musculoskeletal medicine. American Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 80:1421-1427, 1998.
- Gilead JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: a survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 23(4), 2015. Found that a majority of chiropractic students agreed (35.6%) or strongly agreed (25.8%) that the emphasis of chiropractic intervention is to eliminate vertebral subluxations/vertebral subluxation complexes.
- Innes SI and others. How frequent are non-evidence-based health care beliefs in chiropractic students and do they vary across the pre-professional educational years. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:8, 2018.
- Innes SI and others. A failed review of CCE site inspection standards and processes. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:49, 2019. A research team found that three out of four chiropractic accreditation agencies were unwilling to permit a close look at their methodology.
- Nyiendo JA, Haldeman S. A critical study of the student interns’ practice activities in a chiropractic college teaching clinic. JMPT 197-207, 1986.
- Wyatt L. and others. The necessary future of chiropractic education: a North American perspective. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 13:10, 2005.
- Anderson R. Chiropractors for and against immunization. Medical Anthropology 12:169-186, 1990.
- Colley F, Haas M. Attitudes toward immunization: A survey of American chiropractors. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 17:584-590, 1994.
- Lee ACC and others. Chiropractic care for children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 154:401-407, 2000. States that a 1998 survey of Boston chiropractors found that 30% reported actively recommended immunization, 7% reported recommending against immunization, and the rest (63%) reported that they did not make any recommendations or that they educated parents to allow them to make informed decisions.
Spinal manipulation, appropriateness
- Aker PD, Martel J. Maintenance Care. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 3(4):32-35, 1996. Two Canadian chiropractors who conducted an extensive literature search found no scientific evidence supporting the widely held chiropractic belief that periodic spinal adjustments improve health status.
- Gunnar BJ and others. A comparison of of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for patients with low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine 341:1426-1431, 1999.
- Hawk C and others. Preliminary study of the reliability of assessment procedures for indications for chiropractic adjustments of the lumbar spine. JMPT 22:382-389, 1999.
- Meyer A-L and others. Unravelling functional neurology: does spinal manipulation have an effect on the brain? – a systematic literature review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:60, 2019.
- Shekelle PG and others. Congruence between decisions to initiate chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain and appropriateness criteria in North America. Annals of Internal Medicine 129:9-17, 1998. [full text]
Spinal manipulation, complications
- Assendelft WJJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Complications of spinal manipulation: A comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Family Practice 42:475-80, 1996.
- Di Fabio R. Manipulation of the cervical spine: Risks and benefits. Physical Therapy 79:50-65, 1999.
- Haldeman S, Kohlbeck F, McGregor M. Cerebrovascular complications following cervical spine manipulation therapy: A review of 53 cases Conference Proceedings of the Chiropractic Centennial, July 6-8, 1995, 282-283. Davenport IA: Chiropractic Centennial Foundation, 1995. Summarizes 53 previously unreported cases from medicolegal files.
- Ernst E. Spinal manipulation: Its safety is uncertain. Canadian Medical Association Journal 166:40-41, 2002. [PDF]
- Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M. Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation. Spine 24:785-794, 1999.
- Haldeman S and others. Unpredictability of cerebrovascular ischemia associated with cervical spine manipulation therapy. Spine 27:49-55, 2001.
- Lee KP and others. Neurologic complications following chiropractic manipulation: A survey of California neurologists. Neurology 45:1213-1215, 1995.
- Norris JW and others. Sudden neck movement and cervical artery dissection. Canadian Medical Journal 163:38-40, 2000. [PDF}
- Powell FC and others. A risk/benefit analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of lumbar or cervical pain. Neurosurgery 33:73-79, 1993.
- Reuter U and others. Vertebral artery dissections after chiropractic neck manipulation in Germany over three years. Journal of Neurology 256:724-730, 2006. Study supports the assertion that neck manipulation can cause strokesâ€”which many chiropractors deny.
- Rotherwell DAM and others. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke. Stroke 32:1054-1059, 2001.
Spinal manipulation, effectiveness
- Assendelft WJJ and others. The relationship between methodological quality and conclusions in reviews of spinal manipulation. JAMA 274:1942-1948, 1995.
- Assendelft WJJ and others. The effectiveness of chiropractic for treatment of low back pain: An update and attempt at statistical pooling. JMPT 19:499-507, 1996.
- Assendelft WJJ and others. Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine 138:871-881, 2003. Conclusion: “There is no evidence that spinal manipulation is superior to other standard treatments for patients with acute or chronic low back pain.”
- Balon J and others: A comparison of active and simulated chiropractic manipulation as adjunctive treatment for childhood asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 339:1013-1020, 1998.
- Bove G, Nilsson N. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of episodic tension-type headache: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280:1576-1579, 1998.
- Cherkin DC and others. A comparison of physical therapy, chiropractic manipulation, and provision of an educational booklet for the treatment of patients with low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine 339:1021-1029, 1998.
- Corso M and others. The effects of spinal manipulation onperformance-related outcomes in healthy asymptomatic adult population: A systematic review of best evidence. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:25, 2019. A review of published studies found that spinal manipulation did not improve the performance of symptom-free athletes.
- Goetz CH and others. Treatment of Hypertension with Alternative Therapies (THAT) study: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Hypertension 20:2063-2068, 2002. Spinal manipulation plus dietary counseling was no more effective than dietary counseling alone.
- Jordan A and others. Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Spine 23:311-318, 1998.
- Koes BW and others. Spinal manipulation for low back pain: An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine 21:2860-2873, 1996.
- Lantz CA, Chen J. Effect of chiropractic intervention on small scoliotic curves in younger subjects: A time-series cohort design. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 24:385-393, 2001.
- Olafsdottir E and others. Randomised controlled trial of infantile colic treated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 84:138-141, 2001. No benefit was found.
- Pasquier M and others. Spinal manipulation frequency and dosage effects on clinical and physiological outcomes: A scoping review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:23, 2019. A review of published studies found that the frequency of spinal manipulation did not significantly affect clinical outcomes during and following a treatment period. Dosage effects influence short-term physiological responses, but relationships between these responses and clinical outcomes remain to be investigated.
- Shilton M and others. Does cervical lordosis change after spinal manipulation for non-specific neck pain? A prospective cohort study. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:33, 2015.
Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the …
Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the Lehigh Valley Committee Against Health Fraud, it was incorporated in 1970. In 1997, it assumed its current name and began developing a worldwide network of volunteers and expert advisors. Our activities include:
- Investigating questionable claims
- Answering inquiries about products and services
- Advising quackery victims
- Distributing reliable publications
- Debunking pseudoscientific claims
- Reporting illegal marketing
- Assisting or generating consumer-protection lawsuits
- Improving the quality of health information on the Internet
- Attacking misleading advertising on the Internet
The Quackwatch Web site was launched in December 1996. Our other sites are:
- Acupuncture Watch (started 2/05): The skeptical guide to acupuncture history, theories, and practices
- Autism Watch (7/04): Your scientific guide to autism
- Cancer Treatment Watch (8/05): Your guide to sensible cancer treatment
- Casewatch (7/04): Your guide to health fraud- and quackery-related legal matters
- Chelation Watch (7/04): A skeptical view of chelation therapy
- Chirobase (10/98): Your skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and practices
- Credential Watch (2/05): Your guide to health-related education and training
- Dental Watch (6/02): Your guide to intelligent dental care
- Device Watch (7/04): Your guide to questionable medical devices
- Diet Scam Watch (11/04): Your guide to weight-control schemes and ripoffs
- Homeowatch (11/01): Your skeptical guide to homeopathic history, theories, and practices
- Infomercial Watch (7/04): A critical view of the health infomercial marketplace
- Internet Health Pilot (1/02): Your gateway to reliable health information
- Mental Health Watch (7/04): Your guide to the mental help marketplace
- MLM Watch (1/99): The skeptical guide to multilevel marketing
- Naturowatch (6/03): The skeptical guide to naturopathic history, theories, and practices
- NCCAM Watch (11/05): An antidote to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Nutriwatch (3/00): Your guide to sensible nutrition
- Pharmwatch (8/05): Your guide to the drug marketplace and lower costs
Dr. Barrett maintains these sites with help from many volunteers.
- Members of our medical advisory board review articles upon request.
- The Center for Inquiry provided the updated website design, server resources, and upkeep.
- Dr. Barrett’s son Daniel Barrett, a software engineer, provides general technical support.
- OnlyMyEmail provides SPAM protection.
Sources of Income
Founded in 1996 by Dr. Stephen Barrett, Quackwatch has grown into an international network dedicated to investigating and refuting medical frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. The Quackwatch website houses an exhaustive library of information, advice, and news for consumers, activists, media, and medical professionals, relies on science and evidence to address extraordinary claims about so-called “alternative” medical treatments, remedies, and devices.
Quackwatch is now a program of the Center for Inquiry (CFI), an international nonprofit organization which works to foster a secular society based on reason, science, free inquiry, and humanist values. CFI is home to Skeptical Inquirer magazine and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, which seeks to promote science-based skepticism and an end to pseudoscience wherever it arises.
The total cost of operating all of Quackwatch’s sites is approximately $7,000 per year. Quackwatch, Inc., has no salaried employees. It operates with minimal expense, funded mainly by small individual donations, commissions from sales on other sites to which we refer, and profits from the sale of publications. If its income falls below what is needed for the research, the rest comes out of Dr. Barrett’s pocket. Except for the sales commissions, neither Quackwatch nor Dr. Barrett has any financial tie to any commercial or industrial organization.
These donations will support research, writing, and legal actions that can protect many people from being misled.
This page was revised on February 20, 2020.Hide Full Content
In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for …
In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for the program, which was set up to work like this:
- Anyone with a complaint about a false or unsubstantiated infomercial or direct-response ad could fill out the complaint form at the Savvy Shopper Web site.
- The complaint would go to the attorney at the NARC for review.
- The marketer would be notified and given 15 days to provide substantiation.
- Once the marketer provided the materials, the independent attorney had no longer than 45 days to review the materials and render a decision. Thus the process should be completed within 60 days.
- If the claims and campaign were found to be misleading, the marketer would be asked to stop them.
- If the false ads were not stopped, the matter would be referred to the FTC and reports, press releases and letters would be issued to notify the media and cable stations of the review’s findings.
- However, if the ad was found to be substantiated, no action would be taken.
The ERAwas the trade association for major companies who used electronic media to advertise goods and services to the public. Its membership was involved in multi-channel electronic marketing that included infomercials and short-form commercials, live shopping channels, the Internet, radio, and convergence. (Convergence marketing involves integration of online and offline media.) The Savvy Shopper site and complaint form were online for several years without with little or no public attention. However, increased publicity and the NARC involvement were expected to have an impact.
The NARC was formed in 1971 by the Association of National Advertisers, Inc., the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Inc., the American Advertising Federation, Inc., and the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB), Inc. Its purpose is to foster truth and accuracy in national advertising through voluntary self-regulation. The NARC establishes the policies and procedures for the CBBB’s National Advertising Division (NAD), which has been the investigative arm of NARC’s self-regulation program since its inception. The ERSP was originally run by attorney Peter Marinello of NARC and conducted its investigations independently from NAD.
The ERSP program evaluated s the truth and accuracy of “core” claims of the direct response advertisements. It was not set up to deal with financial concerns such as refunds and unauthorized charges.
Between April 2004 and January 2007, the ERSP monitored more than 4,200 advertisements for more than 1,900 products offered through direct response campaigns. By 2007, it had published 125 decisions. In 119 of the cases, the challenged ads were either modified or discontinued. The ERSP complained to the FTC about infomercials for 13 health-related products: 7 Day Miracle Cleanse, AbGONE, Centro Natural de Salud, Hepatol Complex, HoodiaLife, Nexiderm-SP Anti-Wrinkle Formula, Phenterprin HCL, Renuva Anti-Aging System, Rev XP, Sea Vegg Nutritional Supplement, Super Prostate Formula, Ultimate HGH, and Zantrex-3.
In January 2017, the ESRP reported that it had tracked 15,800 informercials., but what happened as a result was not clearly indicated.
The ERSP performed a valuable service, but in in June 2018, the Electronic Retailing Association announced that its dues receipts could no longer meet its expenses and the organization shut down.Hide Full Content
Dr. Barrett’s Books and Textbook Chapters Coauthored Year Title and Publisher 1976 The Health Robbers: How To Protect Your Money And Your Life George F. Stickley Co. 1980 Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions, 2nd Edition C.V. Mosby Co. The Health Robbers, 2nd edition George F. Stickley Co. The Tooth Robbers: A Pro-Fluoridation Handbook …
Dr. Barrett’s Books and Textbook Chapters
Year Title and Publisher 1976 The Health Robbers: How To Protect Your Money And Your Life
George F. Stickley Co.
1980 Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions, 2nd Edition
C.V. Mosby Co.
The Health Robbers, 2nd edition
George F. Stickley Co.
The Tooth Robbers: A Pro-Fluoridation Handbook
George F. Stickley Co.
1981 Vitamins and “Health” Foods: The Great American Hustle
George F. Stickley Co.
1982 Shopping for Health Care
C.V. Mosby Co.
1985 Consumer Health, 3rd Edition
1989 Consumer Health, 4th Edition
1990 Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds
Consumer Reports Books.
1991 Your Guide to Good Nutrition
1993 Consumer Health, 5th Edition
Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods
American Medical Association.
The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America.
1994 The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods.
1997 Consumer Health, 6th Edition. Brown & Benchmark 1998 Chemical Sensitivity: The Truth about Environmental Illness
Edited or Coedited
Year Title and Publisher 1982 Dear Dr. Stare: What Should I Eat?, by Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., and Virginia Aronson, R.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Urology, by Charles D. Saunders, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Mental Help, by John P. Callan, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Physical Fitness, by Ellington Darden, Ph.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Life After 50: Your Guide to Health and Happiness, by Joseph D. Alter, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1983 Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm?, by Charles W. Marshall, Ph.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Inside Psychotherapy-The Patient’s Handbook, by Ronald W. Pies, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Basic Guide to Nutrition, by Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., and Virginia Aronson, R.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1984 Your Guide to Foot Care, by Marvin Sandler, D.P.M.
George F. Stickley Co.
Women Under the Knife: A Gynecologist’s Report on Hazardous Medicine, by Herbert H. Keyser, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
A Smoking Gun: How the Tobacco Companies Get Away with Murder, by Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Heart Care, by Albert G. Goldin, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1985 Your Guide to Ear, Nose and Throat Problems, by Michael Morelock, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
The Smoke-Free Workplace, by William Weis, Ph.D., and Bruce Miller.
1990 Nutrition 90/91, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
1991 Dubious Cancer Treatment.
American Cancer Society, Florida Division
Nutrition 91/92, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
1992 Nutrition 92/93, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
A Consumer’s Guide to “Alternative Medicine,” by Kurt Butler.
Panic in the Pantry, by Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H., and Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., Ph.D.
1993 Mystical Diets, by Jack Raso, M.S., R.D.
1994 Nutrition 94/95, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
“Alternative” Healthcare, by Jack Raso, M.S., R.D.
1995 Nutrition 95/96, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
Chiropractic: The Victim’s Perspective, by George J. Magner, III,
1996 Nutrition 96/97, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Brown & Benchmark
1997 Nutrition 97/98, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Brown & Benchmark
1998 Nutrition 98/99, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
1999 Nutrition 99/00, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Inside Chiropractic: A Patient’s Guide, by Samuel Homola, D.C.
2000 Nutrition 00/01, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Year Title and Publisher 1988 Choosing Health Care Services and Insurance. In Core Concepts in Health, 5th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company Nutrition Facts and Fallacies. In Core Concepts in Health, 5th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company 1990 The Health-care System, In Core Concepts in Health, 6th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1993 Fads, Frauds, and Quackery. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th Edition. Lea & Febiger, The Health-care System, In Core Concepts in Health, 7th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1996 Alternative” Health Practices and Quackery. In The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books, Questionable Cancer Therapies. In Cancer Medicine, 4th Edition, Williams & Wilkins, 1998 “Alternative” Methods: More Hype Than Hope. In Issues in Alternative Medicine. Humana Press, Fads, Frauds, and Quackery. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins, “Alternative” Nutrition Therapies. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins,
WhoWhere for EDGAR Filings If you encounter a web site offering questionable products or services for pets or other animals, please send us the URL . If you encounter a questionable advertisement or other relevant printed material, please mail a copy to Stephen Barrett, M.D., P.O. Box 1747, Allentown, PA 18105. We are organizing a Task …
- If you encounter a web site offering questionable products or services for pets or other animals, please send us the URL .
- If you encounter a questionable advertisement or other relevant printed material, please mail a copy to Stephen Barrett, M.D., P.O. Box 1747, Allentown, PA 18105.
- We are organizing a Task Force on Animal Quackery. If you would like to volunteer either as an expert or a research assistant, please contact us.
Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), dubbed the “Sleeping Prophet” by biographer Jess Stern , was a precursor of “New Age” trance channeling, giving well over 14,000 “psychic readings” between 1910 and his death. A poorly educated photographer and Sunday-school teacher with no medical training whatsoever, Cayce gained nationwide renown for diagnosing illnesses and prescribing dietary and other …
Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), dubbed the “Sleeping Prophet” by biographer Jess Stern , was a precursor of “New Age” trance channeling, giving well over 14,000 “psychic readings” between 1910 and his death. A poorly educated photographer and Sunday-school teacher with no medical training whatsoever, Cayce gained nationwide renown for diagnosing illnesses and prescribing dietary and other remedies while in a self-induced hypnotic state. His current promoters claim:
He could see into the future and the past . . . describe present far-off events as they were happening; and . . . astound doctors with his x-ray vision of the human body. His readings-his words while in this state-were carefully transcribed while they were spoken. He is undoubtedly the most documented psychic who ever lived. And the accuracy of his predictions has been put at well over ninety percent! At his death, he left a legacy of thousands of case histories that science is still at a loss to explain completely.
Cayce’s career as a clairvoyant began in 1901 after a hypnotic session with a “magnetic healer.” In a trance, Cayce supposedly diagnosed the source of — and prescribed a cure for — his own persistent case of laryngitis. According to Mysteries of Mind, Space & Time — The Unexplained (1992), Cayce similarly helped the hypnotist, who proposed that they use this method to cure others. When Cayce refused, his laryngitis recurred. Interpreting the recurrence as a divine gesture, he formed a partnership with the hypnotist. Mysteries states that whenever Cayce decided to quit giving “readings,” he lost his voice or developed a severe headache. As news of the “healings” spread, thousands sought his help. Cayce offered guidance both to persons in attendance and to distant correspondents; he supposedly needed only the person’s name and address. Allegedly drawing upon a “cosmic hall of records,” Cayce revealed “facts” about mythical civilizations, astrological influences, “past lives,” and future events. In The Outer Limits of Edgar Cayce’s Power (1971), Cayce’s sons stated that the transcripts of the readings comprise over fifty thousand single-spaced typewritten pages and more than ten million words.
Five organizations have grown up around Cayce’s work. The headquarters of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.), which occupies an entire city block in Virginia Beach, is home to Atlantic University, the Cayce/Reilly School of Massotherapy, the Edgar Cayce Foundation, the Health and Rejuvenation Center, and A.R.E., Inc.
According to its 1993-94 catalog, Atlantic University opened in 1930, closed two years later, and reopened in 1985. Although not accredited, it awards a master of arts degree in “transpersonal studies”-a term described in the catalog as “an interdisciplinary field which includes psychology, philosophy, sociology, literature, religion, and science.” The courses cover astrology, dream work, I Ching, Jungian psychology, palmistry, psychometry, tarot, and processes to “balance and transform” human “energies.” Students may pursue the master’s degree largely by correspondence.
The Reilly School, which operates under the auspices of the university, was founded in 1931 and reopened in 1986. Certified by the Commonwealth of Virginia, the school offers a 600-hour diploma program in massage therapy. The program includes instruction in shiatsu, foot reflexology, hydrotherapy, diet, and preventive healthcare based on the Cayce readings. The school also offers workshops on biofeedback and Cayce home remedies.
The Edgar Cayce Foundation, chartered in 1948, was formed to preserve the Cayce readings and supporting documentation.
The A.R.E., which Cayce’s son Hugh Lynn Cayce co-founded in 1931, functions as an eclectic “New Age” nerve center, from which emanates a steady flow of seminars and publications. A 1991 brochure describes it as “a living network of people who are finding a deeper meaning in life through the psychic work of Edgar Cayce.” In 1976, Hugh Lynn became board chairman and his son, Charles Thomas Cayce, became president. The A.R.E. headquarters, a modern three-story building in Virginia Beach, includes a visitor/conference center, a library, and the A.R.E. bookstore. It receives more than forty thousand visitors and conference attendees annually. With more than fifty thousand volumes, the library has one of the world’s largest collections of parapsychological and metaphysical literature.
Standard A.R.E. membership costs $30 per year, but nine-month “introductory” memberships are available for $15 or $20. Members receive the bimonthly magazine Venture Inward and can borrow books from the A.R.E. Library, join a study group, and attend or send their children to A.R.E.’s summer camp in the Appalachian foothills. They are also entitled to referrals to over four hundred practitioners who use the Cayce approach. In September 1992, an A.R.E. representative informed me that membership was approximately 39,000, plus about a thousand subscribers.
Members are also invited to participate in “home research projects,” in which they perform activities pertaining to such matters as astrology and numerology and report the results. Participation is free for some projects, but others cost from $17 to about $30 per person. A 1991 issue of the Home Research Project bulletin states: “The main commitment of A.R.E. as a research organization is to encourage you to test concepts in the Cayce readings and to look for-and expect-results.” Study groups center on such concerns as diet, the laws of reincarnation (karma), metaphysical dream interpretation, and the spiritual legacies of ancient Egypt and Atlantis. According to an A.R.E. letter, “Thousands gather together in small groups all over the country to study and apply spiritual principles in daily living.” A.R.E. mailings to prospective members state: “There is no human problem for which the Cayce predictions do not offer hope.” A.R.E. “research reports,” based on the Cayce readings, are available on a wide variety of topics, including scar removal, warts, arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.
Each year, A.R.E. holds dozens of conferences in Virginia Beach and various other cities. They have covered such subjects as angels, astrology (“the key to self-discovery”), chakra healing, “intuitive healing,” reincarnation, UFOs, weight control, and “holistic” financial management. A flyer for a 1992 “psychic training” seminar states: “You are already psychic. . . . You only need to become aware of it!”
Many of Cayce’s remedies are sold through the mail by Home Health Products, Inc., also in Virginia Beach. Home Health specializes in “natural products for a holistic approach to health care” and bills itself as an “official supplier of Edgar Cayce products for health, beauty, and wellness.” Its own products include skin conditioners, laxatives, and a few supplements, but its catalog also offers supplements maHide Full Content
This page is on the Web site of Quackwatch, not the FTC. For release: November 23, 1999 Must Possess Competent and Reliable Evidence before Advertising that Product Prevents Colds or Relieves Allergy Symptoms QVC, Inc. and the Quigley Corporation have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that the companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eezer or …
This page is on the Web site of Quackwatch, not the FTC.
|For release: November 23, 1999
Must Possess Competent and Reliable Evidence before Advertising
QVC, Inc. and the Quigley Corporation have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that the companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eezer or Cold-Eeze brand zinc lozenges can prevent colds and alleviate allergy symptoms. Quigley also settled charges that it made unsubstantiated claims in advertisements for Kids-Eeze Bubble-Gum regarding the product’s ability to reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children.
QVC is a national cable “home shopping” network, and Quigley is the manufacturer of Cold-Eeze and Kids-Eeze. Many of the challenged claims for Cold-Eeze appeared on QVC programming, and were made both by QVC show hosts and by Quigley representatives appearing on QVC. The FTC alleged that both companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eeze can: prevent colds; relieve the symptoms of allergies and hay fever; reduce the risk of contracting pneumonia; and reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children. In addition, according to the FTC complaint against Quigley, the company made unsubstantiated Cold-Eeze claims in radio advertising and on the Internet, and made unsubstantiated claims on the Internet that Kids-Eeze can reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children.
“With the cold and flu season fast approaching, many consumers are looking for products to help them stay healthy or feel better,” said Jodie Bernstein, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “These settlements will ensure that consumers are no longer being misled by unsubstantiated claims about these products. And they also will help remind marketers of their responsibility to back up all advertising promises.”
Last year, the FTC issued an Advertising Guide for Dietary Supplements. The Guide states that claims for dietary supplements must be presented truthfully and there must be adequate support for advertising claims. The Guide is available on the FTC’s website.
Quigley is based in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, and QVC is based in West Chester, Pennsylvania.
In separate consent agreements announced today for public comment, Quigley and QVC agreed not to make the challenged claims for these products, or for any food, drug, or dietary supplement, unless they have competent and reliable scientific evidence to support the claims. The proposed consent agreement with Quigley would also prohibit that company from making any claim that any food, drug or dietary supplement can or will cure, treat, or prevent disease, or will have any effect on the structure or function of the human body, unless it has competent and reliable scientific evidence to substantiate the claim. The proposed QVC settlement would prohibit it from making any claim that any dietary supplement can or will cure, treat, or prevent disease, or will have any effect on the structure or function of the human body, without having competent and reliable scientific evidence to substantiate the claim.
The proposed consent agreements would permit the respondents to make certain claims permitted by the Food and Drug Administration.
The agreements also contain various reporting and recordkeeping provisions that would assist the FTC in monitoring the respondents’ compliance.
The Commission vote to accept the proposed consent agreements for public comment with Quigley Corporation was 3-1 with Commissioner Sheila F. Anthony issuing a separate statement in which she expressed her view “that the consent in this matter does not adequately address Quigley Corporation’s conduct with respect to its marketing of the Kids-Eeze product.” The Commission vote to accept the proposed consent agreements for public comment with QVC was 4-0. An announcement regarding the proposed consent agreements will be published in the Federal Register shortly, and will be subject to public comment for 60 days, after which the Commission will decide whether to make it final. Comments should be addressed to the FTC, Office of the Secretary, 600 Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20580.
NOTE: A consent agreement is for settlement purposes only and does not constitute an admission of a law violation. When the Commission issues a consent order on a final basis, it carries the force of law with respect to future actions. Each violation of such an order may result in a civil penalty of $11,000.
Copies of the complaint, the proposed consent, and other documents associated with this matter are available from the FTC’s web site and also from the FTC’s Consumer Response Center, Room 130, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20580; 202-382-4357; TTY for the hearing impaired 202-326-2502. To find out the latest news as it is announced, call the FTC NewsPhone recording at 202-326-2710.
(FTC File No. 982 3152)
Following the conference on Science Meets “Alternative Medicine,” The National Council for Reliable Health Information will hold two meetings: Board of Directors Dinner Meeting Time: 6 PM, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1999 Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766. Directors who plan to attend should notify …
Following the conference on Science Meets “Alternative Medicine,” The National Council for Reliable Health Information will hold two meetings:
Board of Directors Dinner Meeting
- Time: 6 PM, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1999
- Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
- For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766.
- Directors who plan to attend should notify John H. Renner MD. President, NCRHI at firstname.lastname@example.org, call (816 )228-4595 , or fax to (816)228-4995 to discuss any agenda items and to make dinner reservations.
General Membership Meeting
- Time: 9 AM, Monday March 1, 1999
- Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
- For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766.
- Members who plan to attend should contact Dr. Renner discuss potential agenda items and to make luncheon reservations.
- Stephen Barrett, M.D.,will be one of the speakers at the membership meeting.