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In 2015, the Wisconsin Medical Examining Board concluded that John G. Hoffmann, M.D., had endangered a patient by failing to properly monitor antibiotics he had prescribed for “chronic Lyme disease” and an antifungal drug he had prescribed for “abdominal candidiasis.” Hoffmann is part of a small network of so-called “Lyme literate doctors” who attribute a …
In 2015, the Wisconsin Medical Examining Board concluded that John G. Hoffmann, M.D., had endangered a patient by failing to properly monitor antibiotics he had prescribed for “chronic Lyme disease” and an antifungal drug he had prescribed for “abdominal candidiasis.” Hoffmann is part of a small network of so-called “Lyme literate doctors” who attribute a multitude of common symptoms to “chronic Lyme disease,”which they assert should be treated with many weeks or months of intravenous antibiotic treatment. The scientific medical community rejects these concepts. The board ‘s order (shown below), to which Hoffmann consented, said that if he wants to treat any patient for Lyme disease, he must follow FDA guidelines. He was also ordered to take 10 hours of continuing medical education.
STATE OF WISCONSIN
BEFORE THE MEDICAL EXAMINING BOARD
|IN THE MATTER OF DISCIPLINARY
PROCEEDINGS AGAINSTJOHN G. HOFFMANN, M.D.,
|FINAL DECISION AND ORDER
Division of Legal Services and Compliance Case No. 14 MED 015
The parties to this action for the purpose of Wis. Stat.§ 227.53 are:
John G. Hoffmann, M.D.
Post Office Box 248
Waupaca, WI 54981
Wisconsin Medical Examining Board
P.O. Box 8366
Madison, WI 53 708-8366
Division of Legal Services and Compliance
Department of Safety and Professional Services
P.O. Box 7190
Madison, WI 53707-7190
The parties in this matter agree to the terms and conditions of the attached Stipulation as the final disposition of this matter, subject to the approval of the Medical Examining Board (Board). The Board has reviewed this Stipulation and considers it acceptable.
Accordingly, the Board in this matter adopts the attached Stipulation and makes the following Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Order.
FINDINGS OF FACT 1. Respondent John G. Hoffmann, M.D. (DOB July 26, 1950), is licensed in the state of Wisconsin to practice medicine and surgery, having license number 26569-20, first issued on February 1, 1985, with registration current through October 31, 2017. Respondent’s most recent address on file with the Wisconsin Department of Safety and Professional Services (Department) is Post Office Box 248, Waupaca, Wisconsin 54981.
2. Respondent is a general practice physician and is not board certified.
3. The Board has previously taken the following actions in regards to Respondent’s license to practice medicine and surgery in Wisconsin:
a. On October 22, 1997, the Board suspended Respondent’s license for not less than five years, with a provision for consecutive three month stays of suspension contingent upon compliance with, among other conditions, enrollment and successful participation in a drug and alcohol treatment program, submission to drug and alcohol screens, and submission of quarterly practice and therapy reports. The order was imposed because Respondent consumed alcohol while on call and treated a patient after consuming at least four alcoholic beverages.
b. On March 3, 1998, the Board ordered the suspension be stayed for one month and that Respondent appear before the board on April 22, 1998.
c. On April 30, 1998, the Board stayed the suspension for three months.
d. On September 24, 1998, the Board extended the stay of suspension for an additional three months.
e. On December 18, 1998, the Board denied Respondent’s request for another three month stay and suspended his license for violating the terms of his limited license.
f. The Board reinstated the stay on January 20, April 1 and October 2, 1999.
g. On June 22, 2000, Respondent notified the Board of his intent to retire from the practice of medicine and his wish to surrender his registration, and the Board accepted Respondent’s surrender of his registration to practice and the right to renew it.
h. On June 8, 2004, the Board reinstated the limited license of Respondent.
i. On June 26, 2006, the Board ordered a full reinstatement of Respondent’s license.
j. On May 21, 2008, the Board ordered Respondent to undergo an assessment to evaluate his ability to practice medicine at his current practice. It was also ordered that Respondent not order, prescribe, or administer any opioid or opiate for more than 30 days in any 12 month period for any patient.
k. On November 16, 2011, the Board suspended Respondent’s license pending the outcome of a disciplinary proceeding.
l. On January 18, 2012, the Board ordered the summary suspension of the Respondent’s license and registration to be continued and stayed if Respondent did not accept any new patient and complied with terms and conditions including a professional mentor, a self-study CME program, and successfully passing the SPEX exam.
m. On October 17, 2012, the Board dismissed a pending complaint against the Respondent after he completed a neuropsychological evaluation and was found to have no cognitive deficits.
4. On March 27, 2013, Respondent first saw Patient A for continued treatment of what was charted as “Lyme Disease – documented.” Respondent documented “chronic” Lyme disease with treatment since 2011 and abdominal candidiasis (intestinal).
5. Respondent prescribed Ceftin 500mg BID, Clindamycin 300mg BID every other day, and Diflucan 20 mg on days when not taking Clindamycin, with the plan to continue Patient A on these drugs and dosages. Respondent did not order Patient A undergo regular labs while on this medication regiment.
6. On January 6, 2014, Patient A saw another physician who became concerned with Respondent’s care and treatment of Patient A, specifically Respondent’s plan to maintain Patient A on the above-described antibiotics and antifungals, and without regular lab testing. The provider subsequently filed a complaint with the Department which initiated this matter.
7. Respondent’s treatment of Patient A’s Lyme disease fell below the minimal standard of competence by his plan to maintain Patient A on high dosages of antibiotics and antifungals, and his failure to order regular labs.
8. In resolution of this matter, Respondent consents to the entry of the following Conclusions of Law and Order.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW 1. The Wisconsin Medical Examining Board has jurisdiction to act in this matter pursuant to Wis. Stat. § 448.02(3), and is authorized to enter into the attached Stipulation pursuant to Wis. Stat. § 227.44(5).
2. By the conduct described in the Findings of Fact, Respondent John G. Hoffman, M.D., engaged in unprofessional conduct pursuant to Wis. Admin. Code § Med 10.02(2)(h) (Nov. 2002) by any practice or conduct which tends to constitute a danger to the health, welfare, or safety of patient or public.
3. As a result of the above conduct, John G. Hoffmann, M.D., is subject to discipline pursuant to Wis. Stat. § 448.02(3).
ORDER1. The attached Stipulation is accepted.
2. Respondent John G. Hoffmann, M.D., is REPRIMANDED.
3. The medicine and surgery license issued to John G. Hoffmann, M.D., (license number 26569-20) is LIMITED as follows:
a. Respondent shall only treat Lyme disease in accordance with FDA-approved guidelines. This limitation is permanent.
b. Within nine (9) months of the date of this Order, Respondent shall successfully complete ten (10) hours of continuing medical education on the topic of Lyme disease and its treatment.
c. Respondent shall be responsible for obtaining the course(s) required under this Order, for providing adequate course(s) descriptions to the Department Monitor, and for obtaining pre-approval of the course(s) from the Wisconsin Medical Examining Board, or it designee, prior to commencement of the course(s).
d. The Board or its designee may reject any course(s) and may accept a course(s) for less than the number of hours for which Respondent seeks approval.
e. Within thirty (30) days of completion of each educational component, Respondent shall file an affidavit with the Department Monitor stating under oath that he has attended, in its entirety, the course(s) approved for satisfaction of this requirement along with supporting documentation of attendance from the sponsoring organizations.
f. Respondent is responsible for all costs associated with compliance with this educational requirement.
g. None of the education completed pursuant to this requirement may be used to satisfy any other continuing education requirements that have been or may be instituted by the Board or Department.
4. Within 90 days from the date of this Order, John G. Hoffmann, M.D., shall pay COSTS of this matter in the amount of $740.00.
5. Proof of successful course completion and payment of costs (made payable to the Wisconsin Department of Safety and Professional Services) shall be sent by Respondent to the Department Monitor at the address below:
Division of Legal Services and Compliance
Department of Safety and Professional Services
P.O. Box 7190, Madison, WI 53707-7190
Telephone (608) 267-3817; Fax (608) 266-2264
DSPSMonitoring@wisconsin.gov6. Violation of any of the terms of this Order may be construed as conduct imperiling public health, safety and welfare and may result in a summary suspension of Respondent’s license. The Board in its discretion may in the alternative impose additional conditions and limitations or other additional discipline for a violation of any of the terms of this Order. In the event Respondent fails to timely submit payment of costs as ordered or fails to submit proof of successful completion of the ordered education as set forth above, Respondent’s license (no. 26569-20) may, in the discretion of the Board or its designee, be SUSPENDED, without further notice or hearing, until Respondent has complied with payment of the costs and completion of the education.
7. This Order is effective on the date of its signing.
WISCONSIN MEDICAL EXAMINING BOARD
A Member of the Board
|STATE OF WISCONSIN
BEFORE THE MEDICAL EXAMINING BOARD
|IN THE MATTER OF DISCIPLINARY
PROCEEDINGS AGAINSTJOHN G. HOFFMANN, M.D.,
Division of Legal Services and Compliance Case No. 14 MED 015Respondent John G. Hoffmann, MD., and the Division of Legal Services and Compliance, Department of Safety and Professional Services stipulate as follows:
1. This Stipulation is entered into as a result of a pending investigation by the Division of Legal Services and Compliance. Respondent consents to the resolution of this investigation by Stipulation.
2. Respondent understands that by signing this Stipulation, Respondent voluntarily and knowingly waives the following rights:
- the right to a hearing on the allegations against Respondent.er which time the State has the burden of proving those allegations by a preponderance of the evidence;
- the right to confront and cross-examine the witnesses against Respondent;
- the right to call witnesses on Respondent’s behalf and to compel their attendance by subpoena;
- the right to testify on Respondent’s own behalf;
- the right to file objections to any proposed decision and to present briefs or oral arguments to the officials who are to render the final decision;
- the right to petition for rehearing; and
- all other applicable rights afforded to Respondent under the United States Constitution, the Wisconsin Constitution, the Wisconsin Statutes, the Wisconsin Administrative code, and other provisions of state or federal law.
3. Respondent is aware of Respondent’s right to seek legal representation and has been provided an opportunity to obtain legal counsel before signing this Stipulation.
4. Respondent agrees to the adoption of the attached Final Decision and Order by the Wisconsin Medical Examining Board (Board). The parties to the Stipulation consent to the entry of the attached Final Decision and Order without further notice, pleading, appearance or consent of the parties. Respondent waives all rights to any appeal of the Board’s order, if adopted in the form as attached.
5. If the terms of this Stipulation are not acceptable to the Board, the parties shall not be bound by the contents of this Stipulation, and the matter shall then be returned to the Division of Legal Services and Compliance for further proceedings. In the event that the Stipulation is not accepted by the Board, the parties agree not to contend that the Board has been prejudiced or biased in any manner by the consideration of this attempted resolution.
The parties to Stipulation that the attorney or other agent for the Division of Legal Services and Compliance and any member of the Board ever assigned as an advisor in this investigation may appear before the Board in open or closed session, without the presence of Respondent, for purposes of speaking in support of this agreement and answering questions that any member of the board may have in connection with deliberations on the Stipulation. Additionally, any such advisor may vote on whether the Board should accept this Stipulation and issue the attached Final Decisiion and Order.
7. Respondent is informed that should the Board adopt this Stipulation, the Board’s Final Decision and Order is a public record and will be published in accordance with standard Department procedure.
8. The Division of Legal Services and Compliance joins Respondent in recommending the Board adopt this Stipulation and issue the attached Final Decision and Order.
John G. Hoffmann, M.D., Respondent
Post Office Box 248
Waupaca WI 54981
License no. 26569-20
Joost Kap, Prosecuting Attorney
Division of Legal Services and Compliance
P.O. Box 7190
Madison, WI 53707-7190
This page was posted on July 17, 2017.Hide Full Content
These pamphlets made claims that were typical of chiropractic during its early years. Each falsely alleges that the underlying cause of the condition was impingement (“subluxation”) in the spine that created interference with the normal flow of “life force” or “nerve energy” between the brain and the cells of the organ involved. Adenoids: What will …
These pamphlets made claims that were typical of chiropractic during its early years. Each falsely alleges that the underlying cause of the condition was impingement (“subluxation”) in the spine that created interference with the normal flow of “life force” or “nerve energy” between the brain and the cells of the organ involved.
- Adenoids: What will Chiropractic Do for It?
- Epilepsy: What will Chiropractic Do for It?
- Goiter: What will Chiropractic Do for It?
- Multiple Sclerosis: What will Chiropractic Do for It?
To read these pamphlets, click here.
In April 2020, Amazon.com had six others in the series for sale with the same subtitle: appendicitis, headaches, nervousness, neuritis, sciatica, and stomach trouble. The pamphlets themselves did not identify their author or publisher, but the Amazon seller said the author was Dr. D.L. Hultgren and “guessed” that they were published in 1940.
Three pamphlets from the series were mentioned in legal documents from a case in which the Illinois Supreme Court in upheld a criminal conviction of chiropractor Roger E. Richardson for violating the Illinois Medical Practice Act. In 1957, the Illinois Supreme Court upheld lower court verdicts that Richardson had violated the Act by diagnosing an undercover investigator with two “subluxated vertebrae” and displaying pamphlets for epilepsy, skin eruptions, and tonsillitis.Hide Full Content
Thirty years ago, as AIDS and chronic fatigue syndrome came to national attention, John Renner, M.D. observed that most of the quack cancer clinics began offering the same “treatments” for AIDS and chronic fatigue syndrome—a tendency he coined “rascal rollover.” Today, dubious pitchmen have “rolled” into COVID-19. Here’s a handy compilation of advice, enforcement actions, …
Thirty years ago, as AIDS and chronic fatigue syndrome came to national attention, John Renner, M.D. observed that most of the quack cancer clinics began offering the same “treatments” for AIDS and chronic fatigue syndrome—a tendency he coined “rascal rollover.” Today, dubious pitchmen have “rolled” into COVID-19.
Here’s a handy compilation of advice, enforcement actions, and trustworthy information sources related to the coronavirus pandemic. For up-to-date news and scientific developments, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Schemes and Scams
- Prevention scams: Many individuals and companies are claiming that their dietary supplements, herbal, and/or homeopathic products can prevent disease by “supporting,” “boosting” or “strengthening” the immune system.” Many chiropractors and acupuncturists are making similar claims about their procedures. All such claims should be ignored.
- Testing Scams: Scammers are selling fake at-home test kits or going door-to-door performing fake tests for money
- Treatment scams: Scammers are selling fake vaccines, medicines, tests, and cures for COVID-19. Ignore electronic offers for a COVID-19 vaccine, cure, or treatment. Remember, if there is a medical breakthrough, you will not hear about it for the first time through an email, online ad, or other unsolicited sales pitch.
- Supply scams: Scammers are claiming they have in-demand products, like cleaning, household, health, and medical supplies. When an order is placed, the scammer takes the money and never delivers the order. To avoid being victimized, check online reviews of any company offering COVID-19 products or supplies. Avoid companies whose customers have complained about not receiving items
- Charity scams: Scammers are fraudulently soliciting donations for non-existent charities to help people affected by the COVID-19 crisis. Scammers often use names that are similar to the names of real charities. Research any charities or crowdfunding sites soliciting donations in connection with COVID-19 before giving. Remember, an organization may not be legitimate even if it uses words like “CDC” or “government” in its name or has reputable looking seals or logos on its materials. Be wary of any business, charity, or individual requesting payments or donations in cash, by wire transfer, gift card, or through the mail. Do not send money through any of these channels. The (FTC) Web site has additional tips on avoiding charity frauds.
- Phishing schemes: Scammers, posing as national and global health authorities such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are sending fake emails or texts to trick the recipient into sharing their personal information, including account numbers, Social Security numbers, or login IDs and passwords. Never give your personal or financial information to someone unless you are absolutely sure they are legitimate. Make sure that the anti-malware and anti-virus software on your computer is operating and up to date. Do not click on links or open email attachments from unknown or unverified sources. Doing so could download a virus onto your computer or device. If you are eligible for a payment, you will receive a payment directly from the IRS. Do not pay anyone who promises that they can expedite or obtain a payment or a loan for you. If you are eligible for relief, you will not need to make any up-front payment or pay any fee to receive a stimulus payment. You will not be charged any “processing fees.”
- App scams: Scammers are creating mobile apps designed to track the spread of COVID-19 to insert malware that will compromise users’ devices and steal personal information.
- Provider scams: Scammers pretending to be doctors and hospitals that have treated a friend or relative for COVID-19 and demand payment for that treatment.
- Insurance scams: These include (a) low-cost “corona insurance,” (b) worthless travel insurance, and (c) fake policy-cancellation notices intended to gather personal information or lead to links that install malware.
- Investment scams: Scammers are promoting the stock of small companies, which have limited publicly-available information, using false or misleading claims that the companies’ stock will increase dramatically due to the COVID-19 outbreak, such as claims that a company can prevent, detect, or cure COVID-19. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is warning about online promotions, including on social media, claiming that the products or services of publicly-traded companies can prevent, detect, or cure coronavirus and that the stock of these companies will dramatically increase in value as a result.
- Grandparent scams: Scammers pose as panicked grandchildren in trouble, urging you to wire money immediately. They’ll say they need cash to help with an emergency – like paying a hospital bill or needing to leave a foreign country. Resist the urge to act immediately no matter how dramatic the story is. Verify the caller’s identity by asking questions that a stranger couldn’t possibly answer. Call verifiable contacts to check the story. Don’t send money you can’t get back from scammers: cash, gift cards, or money transfers.
- Taxpayer relief scams: The Internal Revenue Service urges taxpayers to be on the lookout for emails, text messages, websites, and social media attempts that appear to come from the IRS and ask you to verify or provide your financial information so you can get a coronavirus economic impact payment or your tax refund faster. Scammers may use words like “Stimulus Check” or “Stimulus Payment.” They may mail a bogus check, perhaps in an odd amount, then tell the taxpayer to call a number or verify information online in order to cash it. Suspicious messages that appear to be from the IRS or an organization closely linked to the IRS, such as the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS), should be forwarded to email@example.com. For more information go to the Report Phishing and Online Scams page and the Coronavirus Tax Relief page on IRS.gov.
- Price gouging: Individuals and businesses selling essential goods, like hand sanitizer, for significantly higher prices than in a non-emergency setting.
- The FDA and FTC have jointly sent warning letters to 16 companies allegedly selling unapproved products that violate federal law by making deceptive or scientifically unsupported claims about their ability to treat or cure COVID-19.
- The FTC has sent letters to nine Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service providers and other companies warning against “assisting and facilitating” illegal coronavirus-related telemarketing calls.
- The FTC and FCC sent joint letters to VOIP service providers that facilitate illegal robocalls.
- The Securities and Exchange Commission has suspended trading in three companies:
- The U.S. Justice Department has prosecuted:
- The Florida Attorney General has issued more than 40 subpoenas to third-party sellers in Florida accused of price gouging on essential commodities through accounts on Amazon.com
- The Missouri Attorney General has sued Jim Bakker and Morningside Church Productions, Inc.
- The New York Attorney General has sued:
- The New York Times offers free access to important news and useful guidance on the coronavirus outbreak.
- FactCheck.org and HealthNewsReview.org rebut false claims by political leaders
- Snopes Coronavirus Fact-Checking scrutinizes misleading propaganda
- The Center for Inquiry’s Coronavirus Resource Center provides further “inoculation against COVID-19 misinformation.”
Dr.London is a professor of public health at California State University, Los Angeles, editor of Consumer Health Digest, and a scientific and technical consultant to the Committee on Skeptical Inquiry.Hide Full Content
Applied kinesiology is a pseudoscientific approach based on the notion that every organ dysfunction is accompanied by a specific muscle weakness, which enables diseases to be diagnosed through muscle-testing procedures. Between 1976 and 1978, Systems DC, of Pueblo Colorado developed 56 patient-education pamphlets for explaining applied kinesiology to chiropractic patients. Dynamic Communications, Inc., located at …
Applied kinesiology is a pseudoscientific approach based on the notion that every organ dysfunction is accompanied by a specific muscle weakness, which enables diseases to be diagnosed through muscle-testing procedures. Between 1976 and 1978, Systems DC, of Pueblo Colorado developed 56 patient-education pamphlets for explaining applied kinesiology to chiropractic patients. Dynamic Communications, Inc., located at the same address, was named as the publisher. To see the pamphlets and how they were marketed to chiropractors, click here.
- Action! Gait Mechanism
- Blood Pressure
- Can Adults Unknowingly Harm Children?
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Wrist/Hand Problems
- Children and Athletics
- Children and Natural Health Care
- Closed Ileocecal Valve
- Correct Lifting
- Cranial Respiratory Function
- Diet for Hypoglycemia and Sugar-handling Stress
- Digestive Disturbances
- Early Nerve Organization: A Lifetime of Health for Your Child
- Foot and Ankle Stability
- Foot Pronation
- Foot Rehabilitation
- Functional Hypoadrenia
- Hyperkinesis (Hyperactivity in Children)
- Hypoglycemia and Sugar-handling Stress
- Idiopathic Scoliosis
- Intervetebral Disc
- Is It a Good Shoe?
- Laboratory Use in Natural Health Care
- Learning Disability
- Mental and Emotional Health
- Nerve Education
- Open Ileocecal Valve
- Postural Evaluation in Childen
- Some Thoughts about Nutrition
- Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
- Temporo-mandibular Jaw Joint
- The Colon’s Effect on Your Health
- The Spine — An Integrated Structure
- The “Total Person” Concept of Health
- This Is More Important Than Getting Well
- Uniquely Feminine
- Whatever the Health Problem, Look to Your Feet. They May Have the Answer!
- Your Back: How to Care for It
- Your Child’s Feet
The most revealing of the pamphlets—This Is More Important Than Getting Well—is a sales pitch for chiropractic “maintenance care” throughout life. It falsely asserts that (a) our modern culture creates structural problems that interfere with nerve function, (b) the vast majority of the American population is suffering from some type of nutritional deficiency, (c) the mental stresses of today cause hormonal imbalance that can create neurologic imbalance, and (d) health problems just beginning to develop can be found and treated before they cause actual disease.Hide Full Content
The pamphlets below were published by Chiropassion in 1994 or 1995. Together they claim that regular spinal checkups and adjustments throughout life will correct “subluxations” and maintain and enhance health. I have been unable to find any information about the company. To read the pamphlets, click here. Families That Get Adjusted Together Stay Healthy Together Are You …
The pamphlets below were published by Chiropassion in 1994 or 1995. Together they claim that regular spinal checkups and adjustments throughout life will correct “subluxations” and maintain and enhance health. I have been unable to find any information about the company. To read the pamphlets, click here.
- Families That Get Adjusted Together Stay Healthy Together
- Are You Aware of Wha’t’s Going On Behind Your Back?
- Turn on Your Life Force with Chiropractic
- The Spinal Column—Your Lifeline to Good Health
The pamphlets listed below were published by Lewman Design Laboratories of Raytown, Missouri, between 1977 and 1978. To see them, click here: The Patient’s Guide to the Healing Art of Chiropractic The Patient’s Guide to Allergy and Diet The Patient’s Guide to Low Back Pain and Associated Leg Pain The Patient’s Guide to Slipped Disc …
The pamphlets listed below were published by Lewman Design Laboratories of Raytown, Missouri, between 1977 and 1978. To see them, click here:
- The Patient’s Guide to the Healing Art of Chiropractic
- The Patient’s Guide to Allergy and Diet
- The Patient’s Guide to Low Back Pain and Associated Leg Pain
- The Patient’s Guide to Slipped Disc
- The Patient’s Guide to Recurrent Headaches
- The Patient’s Guide to Bursitis and Shoulder Pain
- The Patient’s Guide to Enuresis (Bedwetting)
- The Patient’s Guide to Sports Injuries
Headache falsely asserts that “many if not most headaches are caused by faulty alignment and mobility of one or more of the vertebrae of the neck and back.” The other pamphlets make vague, dubious claims that chiropractors can relieve symptoms and help establish and maintain optimal functioning.Hide Full Content
These pamphlets were marketed in the 1980s by Chirocare, Inc., and Doctors Marketing Systems, Inc., both of which had the same address in Knoxville, Tennessee. The chief promoter was Don E. Johnson, D.C., who practiced chiropractic in Knoxville. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1984 and 1988. To see them, click here: Promotion to …
These pamphlets were marketed in the 1980s by Chirocare, Inc., and Doctors Marketing Systems, Inc., both of which had the same address in Knoxville, Tennessee. The chief promoter was Don E. Johnson, D.C., who practiced chiropractic in Knoxville. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1984 and 1988. To see them, click here:
Promotion to Chiropractors
- Health Comes from Within and So Should Your Practice
- Doctor . . . Your Greatest Loss may be in the personal injury cases you don’t get!
Promotion to Patients
- The Roadmap to Health (24 pages)
- Your Greatest Loss May Occur after the Wreck
- Low Back Pain
- Your Wrist
- Welcome to the Beginning of the End of Your Pain
Your Roadmap to Health greatly exaggerates what chiropractors can do.
Allergy falsely states that “in almost every case of allergy, there is an underlying condition cause known as sub-lux-a-tion. This results in reduced nerve and blood supply and immune weakness.”
Headache falsely states that “most headaches are thge result of nerve pressure at the base of the skull.”Hide Full Content
These pamphlets were published between 1969 and 1971 by the Biological Arts Company. I am unable to find any background information about the company. To see the pamphlets, click here. Subluxation Prevent Spinal Disabilities Structural Spinal Disorders Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders Back Pain Your Child’s Posture and Health “As a Twig Is Bent …
These pamphlets were published between 1969 and 1971 by the Biological Arts Company. I am unable to find any background information about the company. To see the pamphlets, click here.
- Prevent Spinal Disabilities
- Structural Spinal Disorders
- Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders
- Back Pain
- Your Child’s Posture and Health
- “As a Twig Is Bent . . . So Grows the Child”
- Head. Neck and Shoulder Pain
- Recurrent Headaches and Chiropractic
- Recurrent Occipital Headache . . . .Due to Faulty Spinal Alignment and Mobility
- Low Back Pain with Associated Leg Pain
- Nerve Pain . . . Due to Hidden Spinal Disorders
- Shoulder – Neck – Arm Pain and Chiropractic
- Sciatica and Chiropractic
- Slipped Disc and Chiropractic
- Spine and Shoulder Pain
- Your Spine and Muscle Pain
- Your Spine, Nerves and Health
- Your Spine-Nerves and Chiropractic
- Your Spine-Nerves and Whiplash Nerve Injury
- Whiplash Spinal Injury
Pain Due to Structural Spinal Disorders falsely claims that “minute deviations from normal alignment and mobility of a single spinal segment may cause not only disabling back pain but may also interfere with the normal nerve supply of the part of the body and thereby affect the total health pattern of the individual. . . . It logically follows that when a misaligned vertebra pinches or irritates a nerve supplying any part of the body whether that part is a back muscle when a misaligned vertebra pinches or irritates a nerve supplying any part of the body, whether that part is a back muscle, a leg or a vital organ . . . stomach, kidney etc. that organ may suffer pain and loss of function.”
Your Child’s Posture and Health falsely suggests that “minor falls, strains, and daily incidents in the life of an active child is a major cause of childhood spinal disorders” that, if undetected and untreated “may develop into major disabilities.”
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These pamphlets were acquired during the early 1970s by investigators who visited chiropractors in Eastern Pennsylvania. I am unable to find any background information about the publisher. To see the pamphlets, click here. Think Chiropractic First Don’t Keep It a Secret Blame for the Nation’s Poor Health Is Misdirected Athletic Injuries Chest Pain Headaches Sciatica …
These pamphlets were acquired during the early 1970s by investigators who visited chiropractors in Eastern Pennsylvania. I am unable to find any background information about the publisher. To see the pamphlets, click here.
- Think Chiropractic First
- Don’t Keep It a Secret
- Blame for the Nation’s Poor Health Is Misdirected
- Athletic Injuries
- Chest Pain
- Industrial Injuries
- Plan Now: Take Your Family to Chiropractor Today
- How Parents Ignore Children’s Spine
- Why Organized Medicine Opposes Any New Health Principle
“How Parents Ignore Children’s Spine” asserts that “periodic spinal examinations of your child’s spine and nerve system should be a major part of regular health routine.”
“Don’t Keep It a Secret” claims that”as more and more millions of Americans become chiropractiuc patienbts, health care costs will be lowered.”
“Plan Now: Take Your Family to Chiropractor Today” claims that “headaches, abnormal fatigue, nervousness, sleeplessness, indigestion, colds, stiff neck, joint pains, muscular aches and pains are only a few of the early warning signals that a chiropractic adjustment is indicated.”
These claims have no scientific support.Hide Full Content
RFS Publishing, of Rhinebeck, New York, was owned by Richard F. Smith, D.C. and Frances A. Smith. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1970 and 1978. To see them, click here. Chiropractic Health Care Blood Pressure Bursitis Can Exercise Cure Back Pain? Headache Questions & Answers Migraine: The Terrible Headache! Sciatica Slipped Disk Ubiquitous …
RFS Publishing, of Rhinebeck, New York, was owned by Richard F. Smith, D.C. and Frances A. Smith. The pamphlets listed below were published between 1970 and 1978. To see them, click here.
- Chiropractic Health Care
- Blood Pressure
- Can Exercise Cure Back Pain?
- Headache Questions & Answers
- Migraine: The Terrible Headache!
- Slipped Disk
- Ubiquitous Headache
- Anatomy oif Whiplash Neck In juries
The “Chiropractic Health Care” Pamphlet claimed that “regular chiropractic examination and analysis of your body structure is an effective preventive means of maintaining health and eliminating the need for dangerous crisis sick care” and that “everyone alive can live longer, healthier lives with the help of chiropractic.”
The “Migraine” pamphlet claimed that chiropractic can provide permanent relief of symptoms by attacking their cause.
The “Blood Pressure” pamphlet claimed thatregular chiropractic care can “help keep your body functioning normally and keep your blood pressure within normal limits.”
These claims have no scientific support.Hide Full Content
These pamphlets were originally published in 1976 and 1977 by Cindy Publications of Grain Valley, New York. The company’s president was George T. Hackleman, D.C. To see the pamphlets, click here. Messages for Adults The pamphlets as a group suggest that virtually everything can be caused by pinched nerves and corrected by spinal adjustments. X-ray …
These pamphlets were originally published in 1976 and 1977 by Cindy Publications of Grain Valley, New York. The company’s president was George T. Hackleman, D.C. To see the pamphlets, click here.
Messages for Adults
The pamphlets as a group suggest that virtually everything can be caused by pinched nerves and corrected by spinal adjustments.
- X-ray and Chiropractic
- New Chiropractic Patient
- Pinched Nerves
- Arm & Shoulder Pain
- High Blood Pressure
- Migraine Headache
- Nerves Just Nerves
The “Nerves Just Nerves” pamphlet claims that “nerve ‘short circuit'” can cause “dizziness, headaches, nervousness, eye and ear problems, high blood pressure, chronic tiredness, migraine headaches, nervous breakdown, glandular troubles, allergy, skin disorders, gall bladder troubles, poor circulation, low blood pressure, rheumatism, and scores of uncomfortable symptoms.”
The “Pinched Nerve” pamphlet claims that “pinched nerves can masquerade as ulcers, eczema, bursitis, bronchitis, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, thyroid trouble . . . the list is endless.”
The Migraine Headache” pamphlet claims that chiropractors can “banish the migraine forever’ by releasing the pitched nerves.
The “High Blood Pressure” pamphlet states that “since the mechanism of blood pressure is controlled by the nervous system . . . the chiropractor is the doctor to ask if you think you are suffering from high blood pressure.”
These claims have no scientific support.
Messages for Children
These pamphlets describe a chiropractor as a “friend,” suggest that that spinal misalignments can make them feel bad, “feeling bad,” and and recommend keeping the spine “on track” with chiropractic adjustments.
- Why Do I Go to a Chiropractor?
- Now I’ll Make It Plain. . . Your Spine’s Like a tTain!
- Have You Got Nerve!
- Is That Spine Mine?
There is no scientific evidence that children need periodic spinal checkups or adjustments.Hide Full Content
Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide …
Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusions, which the board considered “experimental.” The accusation also stated that Dr. Levy’s records were not accurate in that they were “illegible, disorganized, and incomplete” and contained no consent form, no indication of what dosage was used, and no list of the patient’s problems. In 2008, the board ordered Levy to pay $15,000 for costs and serve on probation for five years, during which he was required to take a course on record-keeping and have his records monitored for one year.
In 2017, Levy was accused of negligence, inadequate record-keeping, and/or administering treatments that were not medically indicated to seven patients and one undercover investigator from the board. The case was settled with a stipulation under which Levy was assessed $15,000 for costs and serve five more years of probation, during which he was required to (a) complete a clinical competency assessment and training program; (b) take continuing education courses in pharmacology and medical ethics; and (c) have his practice monitored for at least two years.
The Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Web site indicates that between 1996 and 2003, Levy was suspended once, placed on probation three times, and fined four times. The details are not posted, but the 2017 California complaint states that the suspension was due to a conviction for fraudulent billing.
OSTEOPATHIC MEDICAL BOARD OF CALIFORNIA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
|In the Matter of the Accusation Against:
HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.
Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Certificate No. 20A4148
|Case No. 00-2005-001494
1. Donald Krpan (Complainant) brings this Accusation solely in his officcapacity as the Executive Director (A) of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California.
2. On or about August 3, 1977, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issued Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate No. 20A4148 to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. (Respondent). The Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate was in full force and effect at all times relevant to the charges brought herein and will expire on February 29, 2008, unless renewed.
3. This Accusation is brought before the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, under the authority of the following laws. All section references are to the Business and Professions Code unless otherwise indicated.
4. Section 2234 of the Code states:
“The Division of Medical Quality shall take action against any licensee who is charged with unprofessional conduct. In addition to other provisions of this article, unprofessional conduct includes, but is not limited to, the following:
“(a) Violating or attempting to violate, directly or indirectly, assisting in or abetting the violation of, or conspiring to violate any provision of this chapter.
“(b) Gross negligence.
“(c) Repeated negligent acts. To be repeated, there must be two or more negligent acts or omissions. An initial negligent act or omission followed by a separate and distinct departure from the applicable standard of care shall constitute repeated negligent acts.
“(1) An initial negligent diagnosis fo11owed by an act or omission medically appropriate for that negligent diagnosis of the patient shall constitute a single negligent act.
“(2) When the standard of care requires a change in the diagnosis, act, or omission that constitutes the negligent act described in paragraph (I), including, but not limited to, a reevaluation of the diagnosis or a change in treatment, and the licensee’s conduct departs from the applicable standard of care, each departure constitutes a separate and distinct breach of the standard of care.
“(e) The commission of any act involving dishonesty or corruption which is substantially related to the qualifications, functions, or duties of a physician and surgeon. “(f) Any action or conduct which would have warranted the denial of a certificate. “(g) The practice of medicine from this state into another state or country without meeting the legal requirements of that state or country for the practice of medicine. Section 2314 shall not apply to this subdivision. This subdivision shall become operative upon the implementation of the proposed registration program described in Section 2052.5.”
5. Section 3600 of the Code states that the law governing licentiates of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California is found in the Osteopathic Act and in Chapter 5 of Division 2, relating to medicine.
6. Section 3600-2 of the Code states:
“The Osteopathic Medical Board of California shall enforce those portions of the Medical Practice Act identified as Article 12 (commencing with Section 2220), of Chapter 5 of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, as to persons who hold certificates subject to the jurisdiction of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, however, persons who elect to practice using the term or suffix 11M.D.11 as provided in Section 2275 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, shall not be subject to this section, and the Medical Board of California shall enforce the provisions of the article as to persons who make the election. After making the election, each person so electing shall apply for renewal of his or her certificate to the Medical Board of California, and the Medical Board of California shall issue renewal certificates in the same manner as other renewal certificates are issued by it.”
7. Section 2266 of the Code states: “The failure of a physician and surgeon to maintain adequate and accurate records relating to the provision of services to their patients constitutes unprofessional conduct.”
8. Section 125.3 of the Code states, in pertinent part, that the Board may request the administrative law judge to direct a licentiate found to have committed a violation or violations of the licensing act to pay a sum not to exceed the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of the case.
FIRST CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
9. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (b) in that he was grossly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P.K. The circumstances are as follows:
10. Between on or about February 16, 2004, and March 11, 2005, P.K., a then 82-year-old male, was a patient of Respondent. Respondent saw P.K. for approximately 65 office visits and respondent treated P.K. on three or four home visits.
11. During this time, most of the care provided to P.K. by Respondent was directed to five chronic medical problems which included COPD, chronic olecranon bursitis, osteoarthritis of the knees, lower urinary tract symptoms and chronic oropharyngeal discomfort attributed to a fungal infection (yeast).
12. Respondent did not believe that P.K.’s oropharyngeal discomfort or respiratory distress and possible fungal (yeast) infection was being adequately treated with conventional therapy and recommended to P.K. that he undergo a series of treatments by intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide. Although Respondent knew and told his patient that the use of hydrogen peroxide was experimental, he did not follow approved research protocol for its use nor did he document the patient’s consent to the experimental use of hydrogen peroxide. Respondent treated P.K. with hydrogen peroxide on several occasions.
13. Patient P.K. also suffered from chronic olecranon bursitis. The olecranon is located at the posterior point of the elbow and has a synovial membrane that may become affected by gout, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, hemorrhage, or trauma. Fluid accumulated in the patient’s olecranon bursa and Respondent treated the condition by joint aspiration on eight occasions. On or about January 10, 2005, following the seventh aspiration, Respondent sent the synovial fluid to a laboratory for analysis but did not request a bacterial culture. Respondent never recommended surgical removal as definitive treatment.
14. Between on or about January 27, 2005, and February 9, 2005, Respondent diagnosed P.K. with interstitial fibrosis and treated him with Imuran (azathioprine). The medical records do not contain medical evidence or findings to support the diagnosis or the use of Imuran, a powerful drug with potential adverse reactions. Also, Respondent did. not consider that the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide might be the cause of P.K.’s condition.
15. The Respondent’s medical records for P.K. are not adequate or accurate in that they are illegible, disorganized, and incomplete. There is no initial history and physical examination of the patient, no general consent form, no specific consent form for the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide treatment, no report of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used when administered, and no problem list.
SECOND CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
Repeated Negligent Acts)
16. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (c) in that he was repeatedly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9- 15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
THIRD CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
17. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (d) in that he was incompetent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9-1 5 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
FOURTH CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
18. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2266 in that his medical records for patient P.K. are neither adequate nor accurate as set forth in paragraphs 9-15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.
WHEREFORE, Complainant requests that a hearing be held on the matters herein alleged, and that following the hearing, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issue a decision:
1. Revoking or suspending Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Number 20A4148, issued to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.
2. Ordering HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. to pay the Osteopathic Medical Board of California the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of this case, pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 125.3; and, if placed on probation, the costs of probation monitoring; and,
3. Taking such other and further action as deemed necessary and proper.
Osteopathic Medical Board of California
State of California
BILL LOCKYER, Attorney General of the State of California
HARINDER K. KAPUR, State Bar No. 198769
Deputy Attorney General California
Department of Justice
110 West “A” Street, Suite 1100
San Diego, CA 92101
P.O. Box 85266
San Diego, CA 92186-5266
Telephone: (619) 645-2075
Facsimile: (619) 645-2061
Attorneys for Complainant
This page was posted on March 25, 2010.Hide Full Content
In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized Public Disservice Announcement “Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria …
In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized
Public Disservice Announcement
“Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria put into their veins?
The ad horrified the health officials who saw it, and not just because of the bad grammar and poor spelling, such as pus with two s’s. An investigator in FDA’s Detroit District showed the district’s consumer affairs officer (CAO), and she called the newspaper. None of the editors could fathom how an ad so misleading and grossly inaccurate had gotten onto the “Back-To-School” pages. Not only were the statements about vaccines completely false, but the ad falsely claimed to be a public service announcement. The name Taylor Straight Chiropractic Center was in large type (along with the phone numbers and office hours) and the copy read: “Health comes totally from the body. Take care of your health and your family’s health through a spinal exam today.” The editors agreed with the CAO that the ad was a disservice to the paper’s readers. At her suggestion, they printed an editorial rebuttal based on an interview with the director of the Wayne County Department of Public Health. The editor also had a few words with the newspaper’s advertising staff.
The CAO contacted the Michigan Department of Health, which promptly wrote a “letter to the editor,” which, when published, termed the chiropractic ad “a flagrant distortion of facts.”
No vaccine is produced for, required of, or given to children which uses pus or dead bacteria from sick animals. All vaccines are given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, not into veins as the ad implies.” The letter pointed out that before vaccines were available, thousands of children were crippled—or killed—by diphtheria, whooping cough, rubella, measles, and polio. Before polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, for instance, 30,000 to 60,000 cases of polio were reported each year. Now there are fewer than 25 cases per year.
The letter added: “Ironically, one of the few cases of diphtheria reported in 1979 occurred in the 5-year-old son of a California chiropractor, who had signed a waiver against immunizations. The boy was the only unimmunized child in his class. He subsequently died of the disease.”
What worried both Federal and State agencies was that the Detroit newspaper was part of a large chain of weekly papers. The health department contacted all county and local health departments across the State, advising them to watch for similar advertisements. The department also contacted the State Attorney General’s office and the Department of Licensing and Regulation. Those agencies are investigating the matter and are considering taking action against the chiropractor for unethical conduct.
Recently, when I saw this article, I was curious about whether the chiropractor was ever disciplined. Searching with Google, I was able to determine that the ad had been placed in the Detroit Free Press by Joseph L. Belcher, D.C.
I also found that on May 6, 1981, the Lansing State Journal published an article titled “Vaccine Issue Divides Board,” which said that the board was equally divided about whether to pursue a complaint and had tabled the matter without settling a date for reconsideration. No further action was taken.Hide Full Content
Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition …
Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition quackery. In 1986, he was awarded honorary membership in the American Dietetic Association. From 1987 through 1989, he taught health education at The Pennsylvania State University. He is listed in Marquis Who‘s Who in America and received the 2001 Distinguished Service to Health Education Award from the American Association for Health Education. He is also a board member of Prescription Justice, a nonprofit group that is working toward lower drug prices. His research library, pictured below, houses more than 5,000 books and 100,000 documents and recordings collected over a 50-year period.
|An expert in medical communications, Dr. Barrett operates 23 Web sites; co-edits Consumer Health Digest (a free weekly electronic newsletter); and has been a peer-review panelist for several top medical journals. He has written thousands of articles and delivered more than 300 talks at colleges, universities, medical schools, and professional meetings. His 53 books include The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America and eight editions of the college textbook Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions. One book he edited, Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm?, by Charles Marshall, Ph.D., won the American Medical Writers Association award for best book of 1983 for the general public and became a special publication of Consumer Reports Books. His other classics include Dubious Cancer Treatment, published by the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society; Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds, published by Consumer Reports Books; The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods, published by Prometheus Books; and Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods, published by the American Medical Association. His most recent book, Homeopathy in America: The Ups and Downs of a Medical Heresy, was published in 2019 by Kindle Books. From 2012 through 2016, he served as North American co-editor of the journal Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapy (FACT). His media appearances have included Dateline, the Today Show, Good Morning America, ABC Prime Time, Donahue, CNN, National Public Radio, and more than 200 radio and television talk show interviews.|
Since moving to North Carolina in 2007, Dr. Barrett has been swimming competitively and has won 140 state championship events, 40 medals in national events, and 16 medals in international events and has set 19 state records. At the 2012 U.S. Masters Spring Nationals, he and three teammates earned Relay All-American Awards for the fastest times swum in the U.S. in 2012 in the age 75-79 men’s 200 freestyle and 200 medley relay events. During the 2013 season, he won 3 three gold medals at the North Carolina Senior Games, 3 silver medals at the National Senior Games, and became a world champion by winning the age 80-84 men’s 50-meter butterfly event at the Huntsman World Senior Games. In 2014, he won 2 gold, 1 silver, and 2 bronze medals at the U.S. Masters Summer National Championships and 5 gold and 1 silver medal at the North Carolina Senior Games. In 2016, he became certified as an instructor in the U.S. Masters Adult Learn-to-Swim program.
The Center for Inquiry began maintaining the Quackwatch network of Web sites in February 2020 and will receive Dr. Barrett’s research library later this year.
- Curriculum Vitae
- Books and Book Chapters
- American Psychiatric News article
- Interview in Biography Magazine
- MEDHUNTERS magazine article
- Time Magazine Article
- Frequently Asked Questions about Dr. Barrett’s Activities
- The Internet Libel Campaign against Dr. Barrett
How to Contact Dr. Barrett (Please mention how you found this Web site)
- E-mail: Click here
- Snail mail:
287 Fearrington Post
Pittsboro, NC 27312 .
- Telephone: (919) 533-6009
When time permits, your questions related to consumer health will be answered by e-mail. The most interesting ones will be posted (without the sender’s name) to this Web site. Before sending a question, please search Quackwatch to see whether the topic has been covered! If you prefer to phone, please send an email message first so I can retain your contact information.
This page was revised on March 5, 2020.Hide Full Content
Appendix C: Number of Chiropractors in Practice ©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C. It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, …
Number of Chiropractors in Practice
©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C.
It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, however. Dividing the conglomeration of chiropractic technics among practicing chiropractors has taken its toll of practitioners as well as its toll of chiropractic colleges. The practice failure among newly-graduated chiropractors is extremely high, partly because of the lack of recognition and reciprocity with other healing arts, and partly because of the severe economic competition between chiropractors adhering to one school of thought or another. One chiropractic publication stated that 54% of all chiropractic graduates fail during the first year of practice 
A January, 1960, chiropractic publication stated that there were 30,000 chiropractors practicing in 1930, and that this figure had dwindled to less than 20,000. “At one time or another there have been 88, yes, 88 Chiropractic colleges,” the publication advised. “Today, there are 17 in existence. Our schools are dying, our numbers are decreasing and yet we remain in our ivory towers, ignorant in our bliss, apathetic in our attitudes, refusing to see and to admit that we are a dying profession and worse yet unwilling to do anything about it.” 
It is difficult to understand why figures on the number of chiropractic colleges and chiropractic practitioners will differ so markedly from one source to another, or even from the same source from time to time. In trying to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors, one would probably inquire first of licensing boards in each state. This may not give a correct count, however, since a good number of chiropractors apparently fail to succeed in practice and, as a result, go into other fields of work. Licenses are often maintained in a state by such practitioners, along with those retired. In California in 1958, the state with the largest number of chiropractors, only 54% of more than 4,000 licensed chiropractors were in full-time practice, with some 23% of the total number in part-time practice. 
Figures compiled by the Bureau of the Census would probably give the most accurate count of the number of chiropractors.
The 1930 census report stated that there were 11,916 chiropractors designated as “gainful workers.” In 1940, this figure had decreased to 10,629 “employed” chiropractors. In 1950, however, the census reported that there were 13,091 chiropractors in the experienced civilian labor force (the National Chiropractic Association reported that there were more than 20,000 licensed chiropractors). According to prepublication reports released in December of 1962, the 1960 census counted 14,360 chiropractors in the “experienced civilian labor force” (which includes both employed and unemployed practitioners), showing a 9.7% increase over the 1950 figures.
- 1. Nimmo RL. The Receptor. Volume 1, Number 4, 1959.
- 2. Fountain Head News. Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, January, 1960.
- 3. Chiropractic in California. Los Angeles: Stanford Research Institute and the Haynes Foundation, 1960.
Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors. Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William …
Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors.
Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William M. London, Ed.D., M.P.H, with help from Stephen Barrett, M.D. It summarizes scientific reports; legislative developments; enforcement actions; news reports; Web site evaluations; recommended and nonrecommended books; research tips; and other information relevant to consumer protection and consumer decision-making. It also calls attention to new articles on our Web sites.
- The chd Info Page tells how to subscribe. Please record your password so you can access your account later. To unsubscribe, access your account or follow the instructions that will be included in each issue.
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Our subscriber list is private and will not be given to third parties for any purpose.Hide Full Content
Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites. What You Can Do If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or …
Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites.
What You Can Do
If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or audiotapes that you no longer need, please donate them to Quackwatch. My mailing address is Stephen Barrett, MD; 287 Fearrington Post, Pittsboro, NC 27312. If you would lkike to be reimbursed for the cost of shipping, let me know before you send anything.Hide Full Content
Lane Labs Ordered to Stop Illegal Marketing (6/04) PROven Serpentarium Enjoined (3/82) Injunction against Nutrilite (Amway predecessor) (8/51)
- Lane Labs Ordered to Stop Illegal Marketing (6/04)
- PROven Serpentarium Enjoined (3/82)
- Injunction against Nutrilite (Amway predecessor) (8/51)
Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. …
Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. Please contact us if:
- You encounter something are not sure about.
- You can provide a description or a URL describing a method we have listed.
- You have expert knowledge of a listed method.
- You have undergone any of the procedures below and can provide us with a detailed account of your experience.
The methods we are interested in so far are:
- Anti-Scoliosis Vibration-Decompression Method
- Buteyko breathing technique (link to another site)
- EEG biofeedback for ADHD or stress-related disorders
- Enzyme potentiated desensitization
- Egoscue method
- Hinz protocol for Parkinson’s disease
- Referenced EEG
- Sensory-motor integration therapy
- Theratec MS scanner
- Tomatis Method
- Transpersonal psychology
**Note: Listing of a method on this page does not necessarily mean there is anything wrong with it. It merely means we have been asked and are seeking information.Hide Full Content
In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included: Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia …
In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included:
- Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies
- Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia
- Kirlian photography for “research purposes”
- Laetrile instead of standard cancer treatment
- Inappropriate use of chelation therapy to treat atherosclerosis
Vance appealed to state and federal courts but lost. In 1987, when the Texas Medical Board was considering Utah’s action, Vance surrendered his Texas license. In 1996, Texas denied his application for reinstatement. He died in 2017 at the age of 83.
BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION
STATE OF UTAH
|IN THE MATTER OF THE LICENSE
TO PRACTICE AS AN OSTEOPATHIC
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON OF
ROBERT B. VANCE, D.O.
FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Leon A. Halgren for the Division of Registration.
Robert McRae, Attorney for Respondent.
Pursuant to notice duly served by certified mail, this matter cane on regularly for hearing on the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day of January, 1981 and also on the 2nd day of February, 1981 before the Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah and the Division of Registration. Evidence was offered and received, and the Osteopathic v, having been advised in the premises, now makes and enters to the Director of the Division of Registration the following Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and its Recommended Order based thereon:
F’INDINGS OF F’ACT
1. We find that osteopathic physicians and surgeons should maintain and uphold the sane standards of care as medical doctors in caring for and treating their patients. When a physician assumes primary care of a patient by advising a patient to discontinue medications or instructions from a previous physician, the new physician should do a complete physical examination and record such. The physical examination should include at least examination of the heart, lungs and abdomen. No intravenous solutions should be given without a physical examination (including heart and lungs) being performed. We also find that a physician must be in attendance when intravenous solutions are given unless it is an emergency. We find that Robert B. Vance did not abide by and follow these standards in his treatment of patients and in particular in his care and treatment of James Nickeson.
2. We have had testimony that preventive medicine as practiced by Dr. Vance and his colleagues should be practiced in addition to the basic (orthodox) standards of medicine in the United States. We find that Dr. Vance has not maintained these basic standards in his practice.
3. Inasmuch as Chelation Therapy is not accepted among medical standards as a proper method of treatment for atherosclerosis in the United States, it should not be prescribed as such be a physician in general practice.
4. We find that Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) should not be prescribed in lieu of standard accepted medical treatment for a patient suffering from cancer.
5. We find that Robert B. Vance diagnosed hypoglycemia too often without adequately ruling out other diseases or body dysfunctions.
6. We find that in many cases Dr. Vance led many patients into believing that his form of therapy was more beneficial than treatment which is recognized as proper or appropriate in the medical profession.
7. Dr. Vance’s use of Kinesiology (having patient hold arm out, with the resulting dropping of the arm determining food allergies) as the sole test to determine food allergies is totally unfounded.
8. As to the allegations in the petition (referring to doctor placing his hand on top and thinking of various foods, with the referring to the paragraphs of the petition) we make specific findings as to each such allegation as follows:
A. We find the allegations to be true in that Robert B. Vance provided unnecessary and unproven medical treatment for atherosclerosis by giving Chelation therapy.
B. No finding.
C. No finding.
D. No finding.
E. We find the allegation to be true and substantially supported by the evidence.
F. No finding.
G. We find the allegations to be true in that the evidence showed that Robert B. Vance did not do a physical examination; he used iridology, an unaccepted and unproven method of diagnosis, and diagnosed hypothyroidism from a low axillary temperature with disregard for normal laboratory tests.
H. We find the allegations to be true. He charged for a Cronogram (Kirlian Photography) which he testified he was doing for research purposes, without notifying the patient of such fact and admitted its use as a diagnostic tool was of questionable value.
I. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
J. No finding.
K. No finding.
L. No finding.
M. No finding.
N. No finding.
O. No finding.
P. No finding.
Q. No finding.
R. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
S. No finding.
T. No finding.
U. No finding.
V. No finding.
W. No finding.
X. No finding.
Y. No finding.
Z. No finding.
AA. No finding.
BB. No finding.
CC. No finding.
DD. No finding.
EE. No finding.
FF. No finding.
GG. No finding.
HH. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.
II. We find the allegations to be true and fully supported by the evidence. In the Nickeson case there was evidence of gross negligence on the part of Dr. Vance. He should not have encouraged the family to have the patient leave the Casper, Wyoming Hospital; the diagnostic process had not been completed. He instituted intravenous therapy in his office before doing a physical examination; in fact, he never did no a physical examination. The patient was treated with questionable therapy in lieu of standard medical treatment. Dr. Vance did not see the patient in excess of five days while the patient, not under the direct control of Robert B. Vance, was receiving daily I.V. therapy. He discontinued the Coumadin therapy without examining the patient’s leg or thrombophlebitis or monitoring clotting times. Mrs. Nickeson, the patient’s mother, purchased oral Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) in Dr. Vance’s office from Margaret Smith. We feel that he is responsible for anything that takes place in his office. In general, this case was beyond the expertise of a general practitioner.
In spite of the fact that he has gained a great deal of knowledge in the field of preventative medicine, assuming primary care for a patient such as Mr. Nickeson was beyond the scope of his additional knowledge.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
a, the basis of the Findings of Fact the Osteopathic Committee concludes that the Respondent Robert B. Vance is subject to the provisions of Section 58-12-36(15) Utah Code Annotated 1953, as amended and that he has committed acts of sufficient severity amounting to unprofessional conduct as set forth 1n said Section 58-12-36(15) on which to base disciplinary action for revocation o: his license to practice as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah as hereinafter provided.
The Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah recommends to the Director of the Division of Registration that the license of the Respondent, Robert B. Vance, as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah be revoked.
Dated this 2nd day of February, 1981.
Leland D. Shafer, D.O.
Victoria Greenwood, D.O.
This article was posted on January 20, 2020.Hide Full Content
General Articles Signs of a “Quacky” Web Site Fifteen Ways to Spot an Internet Bandit Guideline Issues AMA Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites (link to JAMA) HONcode Principles: What Do They Signify? HONcode Violators Untrustworthy Organizations in the Healthfinder Database URAC Violators Web Site Ratings Systems Questioned Links to Highly Recommended Sites American …
- AMA Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites (link to JAMA)
- HONcode Principles: What Do They Signify?
- HONcode Violators
- Untrustworthy Organizations in the Healthfinder Database
- URAC Violators
- Web Site Ratings Systems Questioned
Links to Highly Recommended Sites
- American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
- Chirobase: Quackwatch’s skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and current practices
- Internet Health Pilot
- MLM Watch: Quackwatch’s guide to multilevel marketing
- National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF)
- Links to Skeptical Information Sources
- Links to Other Valuable Sites
Sites Recommended with Reservations
These major sites are mostly reliable but have “blind spots” that damage their credibility. Their reliable parts can be very useful, but some parts should be disregarded or viewed with caution.
- Arthritis Foundation (avoid information on “complementary” and “alternative” methods)
- WebMD Health (articles related to “complementary and alternative medicine” are highly misleading)
Nonrecommended Major Sites
Each of these sites provides a huge amount of information, most or all of which promotes unsubstantiated theories and/or methods. They may be useful to researchers seeking descriptions of these theories and methods from their proponents. However, they should be avoided by persons seeking high-quality information on which to base a health-related decision.
- Ask Dr. Weil
- Doctors Medical Library
- The Anti-Aging Medical Clinic
- Natural News (Mike Adams)
- Prevention Magazine
- Progressive Radio Network (Gary Null)
Nonrecommended Minor SitesHide Full Content
The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page. Chiropractic Identity and Practices Gliedt JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: A survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:4, 2015. Murphy DR …
The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page.
Chiropractic Identity and Practices
- Gliedt JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: A survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:4, 2015.
- Murphy DR and others. How can chiropractic become a respected mainstream profession? The example of podiatry. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 16:10, 2008.
- Walker B. The new chiropractic. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 24:26, 2016. Spotlights serious practices that damn the reputation of chiropractors.
- Funk MF and others. The prevalence of the term subluxation in chiropractic degree program curricula throughout the world. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 26:24, 2018.
- Leboeuf-Yde C and others. Chiropractic, one big unhappy family: Better together or apart? Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 27:4, 2019.
Advertising and Marketing
- Ernst E, Gilbey A. Chiropractic claims in the English-speaking world. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123:36-44, 2010] Survey found that unsubstantiated claims are very common on chiropractic Web sites.
- Grod JP, Sikorski D, Keating J. Unsubstantiated claims in patient brochures from the largest state, provincial, and national chiropractic associations and research agencies. JMPT 24:514-519, 2001.
- Sikorski DM, Grod JP. The unsubstantiated Web site claims of chiropractic colleges in Canada and the United States. Journal of Chiropractic Education 17:113-119, 2003. Found that the Web sites of more than half the chiropractic colleges in North America make unsubstantiated claims for clinical theories or methods.
Chiropractic care, cost and effectiveness
- Assendelft WJJ, Bouter LM. Does the goose really lay golden eggs? A methodological review of workmen’s compensation studies. JMPT 16:161-168, 1993.
- Carey TS and others. The outcomes and costs of care for acute low back pain among patients seen by primary care practitioners, chiropractors, and orthopedic surgeons. New England Journal of Medicine 333:913-917, 1995.
- Goncalves G and others. Effect of chiropractic treatment on primary or early secondary prevention: A systematic review with a pedagogic approach. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:10, 2018. Literature review found no evidence that chiropractic treatment can prevent disease in general.
- Shekelle, PG and others. The effect of cost sharing on the use of chiropractic services. Medical Care 34:863-872, 1996.
- Skargren EI and others. One-year follow-up comparison of the cost and effectiveness of chiropractic and physiotherapy as primary management for back pain. Subgroup analysis, recurrence, and additional health care utilization. Spine 23:1875-1883, 1998.
Reliability of chiropractic procedures
- French SD, Green S, Forbes A. Reliability of chiropractic methods commonly used to detect manipulable lesions in patients with chronic low-back pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23:231-238, 2000.
- Haas M. The reliability of reliability. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 19:199-208, 1991.
- Hawk C and others. Preliminary study of the reliability of assessment procedures for indications for chiropractic adjustments of the lumbar spine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 22:382-389, 1999.
- Hestoek L, Leboeuf-Yde C. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23:258-275, 2000.
- Jenkins HJ and others. Current evidence for spinal X-ray use in the chiropractic profession: a narrative review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:48, 2018. Concluded that (a) in the vast majority of cases who present to chiropractors, the potential benefit from spinal X-rays does not outweigh the potential harms and (b) spinal x-rays should not be performed as a routine part of chiropractic practice,
- Mirtz TA and others. An epidemiological examination of the subluxation construct using Hill’s criteria of causation. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 17:13, 2009.
- Dorey TT, Phillips RB. Comparison of entrance requirements for health care professions. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 20:86-91, 1997.
- Freedman KB, Bernstein J. The adequacy of medical school education in musculoskeletal medicine. American Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 80:1421-1427, 1998.
- Gilead JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: a survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 23(4), 2015. Found that a majority of chiropractic students agreed (35.6%) or strongly agreed (25.8%) that the emphasis of chiropractic intervention is to eliminate vertebral subluxations/vertebral subluxation complexes.
- Innes SI and others. How frequent are non-evidence-based health care beliefs in chiropractic students and do they vary across the pre-professional educational years. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 26:8, 2018.
- Innes SI and others. A failed review of CCE site inspection standards and processes. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:49, 2019. A research team found that three out of four chiropractic accreditation agencies were unwilling to permit a close look at their methodology.
- Nyiendo JA, Haldeman S. A critical study of the student interns’ practice activities in a chiropractic college teaching clinic. JMPT 197-207, 1986.
- Wyatt L. and others. The necessary future of chiropractic education: a North American perspective. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 13:10, 2005.
- Anderson R. Chiropractors for and against immunization. Medical Anthropology 12:169-186, 1990.
- Colley F, Haas M. Attitudes toward immunization: A survey of American chiropractors. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 17:584-590, 1994.
- Lee ACC and others. Chiropractic care for children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 154:401-407, 2000. States that a 1998 survey of Boston chiropractors found that 30% reported actively recommended immunization, 7% reported recommending against immunization, and the rest (63%) reported that they did not make any recommendations or that they educated parents to allow them to make informed decisions.
Spinal manipulation, appropriateness
- Aker PD, Martel J. Maintenance Care. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 3(4):32-35, 1996. Two Canadian chiropractors who conducted an extensive literature search found no scientific evidence supporting the widely held chiropractic belief that periodic spinal adjustments improve health status.
- Gunnar BJ and others. A comparison of of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for patients with low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine 341:1426-1431, 1999.
- Hawk C and others. Preliminary study of the reliability of assessment procedures for indications for chiropractic adjustments of the lumbar spine. JMPT 22:382-389, 1999.
- Meyer A-L and others. Unravelling functional neurology: does spinal manipulation have an effect on the brain? – a systematic literature review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:60, 2019.
- Shekelle PG and others. Congruence between decisions to initiate chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain and appropriateness criteria in North America. Annals of Internal Medicine 129:9-17, 1998. [full text]
Spinal manipulation, complications
- Assendelft WJJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Complications of spinal manipulation: A comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Family Practice 42:475-80, 1996.
- Di Fabio R. Manipulation of the cervical spine: Risks and benefits. Physical Therapy 79:50-65, 1999.
- Haldeman S, Kohlbeck F, McGregor M. Cerebrovascular complications following cervical spine manipulation therapy: A review of 53 cases Conference Proceedings of the Chiropractic Centennial, July 6-8, 1995, 282-283. Davenport IA: Chiropractic Centennial Foundation, 1995. Summarizes 53 previously unreported cases from medicolegal files.
- Ernst E. Spinal manipulation: Its safety is uncertain. Canadian Medical Association Journal 166:40-41, 2002. [PDF]
- Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M. Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation. Spine 24:785-794, 1999.
- Haldeman S and others. Unpredictability of cerebrovascular ischemia associated with cervical spine manipulation therapy. Spine 27:49-55, 2001.
- Lee KP and others. Neurologic complications following chiropractic manipulation: A survey of California neurologists. Neurology 45:1213-1215, 1995.
- Norris JW and others. Sudden neck movement and cervical artery dissection. Canadian Medical Journal 163:38-40, 2000. [PDF}
- Powell FC and others. A risk/benefit analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of lumbar or cervical pain. Neurosurgery 33:73-79, 1993.
- Reuter U and others. Vertebral artery dissections after chiropractic neck manipulation in Germany over three years. Journal of Neurology 256:724-730, 2006. Study supports the assertion that neck manipulation can cause strokesâ€”which many chiropractors deny.
- Rotherwell DAM and others. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke. Stroke 32:1054-1059, 2001.
Spinal manipulation, effectiveness
- Assendelft WJJ and others. The relationship between methodological quality and conclusions in reviews of spinal manipulation. JAMA 274:1942-1948, 1995.
- Assendelft WJJ and others. The effectiveness of chiropractic for treatment of low back pain: An update and attempt at statistical pooling. JMPT 19:499-507, 1996.
- Assendelft WJJ and others. Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine 138:871-881, 2003. Conclusion: “There is no evidence that spinal manipulation is superior to other standard treatments for patients with acute or chronic low back pain.”
- Balon J and others: A comparison of active and simulated chiropractic manipulation as adjunctive treatment for childhood asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 339:1013-1020, 1998.
- Bove G, Nilsson N. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of episodic tension-type headache: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280:1576-1579, 1998.
- Cherkin DC and others. A comparison of physical therapy, chiropractic manipulation, and provision of an educational booklet for the treatment of patients with low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine 339:1021-1029, 1998.
- Corso M and others. The effects of spinal manipulation onperformance-related outcomes in healthy asymptomatic adult population: A systematic review of best evidence. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:25, 2019. A review of published studies found that spinal manipulation did not improve the performance of symptom-free athletes.
- Goetz CH and others. Treatment of Hypertension with Alternative Therapies (THAT) study: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Hypertension 20:2063-2068, 2002. Spinal manipulation plus dietary counseling was no more effective than dietary counseling alone.
- Jordan A and others. Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Spine 23:311-318, 1998.
- Koes BW and others. Spinal manipulation for low back pain: An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine 21:2860-2873, 1996.
- Lantz CA, Chen J. Effect of chiropractic intervention on small scoliotic curves in younger subjects: A time-series cohort design. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 24:385-393, 2001.
- Olafsdottir E and others. Randomised controlled trial of infantile colic treated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 84:138-141, 2001. No benefit was found.
- Pasquier M and others. Spinal manipulation frequency and dosage effects on clinical and physiological outcomes: A scoping review. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 27:23, 2019. A review of published studies found that the frequency of spinal manipulation did not significantly affect clinical outcomes during and following a treatment period. Dosage effects influence short-term physiological responses, but relationships between these responses and clinical outcomes remain to be investigated.
- Shilton M and others. Does cervical lordosis change after spinal manipulation for non-specific neck pain? A prospective cohort study. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:33, 2015.
Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the …
Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the Lehigh Valley Committee Against Health Fraud, it was incorporated in 1970. In 1997, it assumed its current name and began developing a worldwide network of volunteers and expert advisors. Our activities include:
- Investigating questionable claims
- Answering inquiries about products and services
- Advising quackery victims
- Distributing reliable publications
- Debunking pseudoscientific claims
- Reporting illegal marketing
- Assisting or generating consumer-protection lawsuits
- Improving the quality of health information on the Internet
- Attacking misleading advertising on the Internet
The Quackwatch Web site was launched in December 1996. Our other sites are:
- Acupuncture Watch (started 2/05): The skeptical guide to acupuncture history, theories, and practices
- Autism Watch (7/04): Your scientific guide to autism
- Cancer Treatment Watch (8/05): Your guide to sensible cancer treatment
- Casewatch (7/04): Your guide to health fraud- and quackery-related legal matters
- Chelation Watch (7/04): A skeptical view of chelation therapy
- Chirobase (10/98): Your skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and practices
- Credential Watch (2/05): Your guide to health-related education and training
- Dental Watch (6/02): Your guide to intelligent dental care
- Device Watch (7/04): Your guide to questionable medical devices
- Diet Scam Watch (11/04): Your guide to weight-control schemes and ripoffs
- Homeowatch (11/01): Your skeptical guide to homeopathic history, theories, and practices
- Infomercial Watch (7/04): A critical view of the health infomercial marketplace
- Internet Health Pilot (1/02): Your gateway to reliable health information
- Mental Health Watch (7/04): Your guide to the mental help marketplace
- MLM Watch (1/99): The skeptical guide to multilevel marketing
- Naturowatch (6/03): The skeptical guide to naturopathic history, theories, and practices
- NCCAM Watch (11/05): An antidote to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Nutriwatch (3/00): Your guide to sensible nutrition
- Pharmwatch (8/05): Your guide to the drug marketplace and lower costs
Dr. Barrett maintains these sites with help from many volunteers.
- Members of our medical advisory board review articles upon request.
- The Center for Inquiry provided the updated website design, server resources, and upkeep.
- Dr. Barrett’s son Daniel Barrett, a software engineer, provides general technical support.
- OnlyMyEmail provides SPAM protection.
Sources of Income
Founded in 1996 by Dr. Stephen Barrett, Quackwatch has grown into an international network dedicated to investigating and refuting medical frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. The Quackwatch website houses an exhaustive library of information, advice, and news for consumers, activists, media, and medical professionals, relies on science and evidence to address extraordinary claims about so-called “alternative” medical treatments, remedies, and devices.
Quackwatch is now a program of the Center for Inquiry (CFI), an international nonprofit organization which works to foster a secular society based on reason, science, free inquiry, and humanist values. CFI is home to Skeptical Inquirer magazine and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, which seeks to promote science-based skepticism and an end to pseudoscience wherever it arises.
The total cost of operating all of Quackwatch’s sites is approximately $7,000 per year. Quackwatch, Inc., has no salaried employees. It operates with minimal expense, funded mainly by small individual donations, commissions from sales on other sites to which we refer, and profits from the sale of publications. If its income falls below what is needed for the research, the rest comes out of Dr. Barrett’s pocket. Except for the sales commissions, neither Quackwatch nor Dr. Barrett has any financial tie to any commercial or industrial organization.
These donations will support research, writing, and legal actions that can protect many people from being misled.
This page was revised on February 20, 2020.Hide Full Content
In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for …
In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for the program, which was set up to work like this:
- Anyone with a complaint about a false or unsubstantiated infomercial or direct-response ad could fill out the complaint form at the Savvy Shopper Web site.
- The complaint would go to the attorney at the NARC for review.
- The marketer would be notified and given 15 days to provide substantiation.
- Once the marketer provided the materials, the independent attorney had no longer than 45 days to review the materials and render a decision. Thus the process should be completed within 60 days.
- If the claims and campaign were found to be misleading, the marketer would be asked to stop them.
- If the false ads were not stopped, the matter would be referred to the FTC and reports, press releases and letters would be issued to notify the media and cable stations of the review’s findings.
- However, if the ad was found to be substantiated, no action would be taken.
The ERAwas the trade association for major companies who used electronic media to advertise goods and services to the public. Its membership was involved in multi-channel electronic marketing that included infomercials and short-form commercials, live shopping channels, the Internet, radio, and convergence. (Convergence marketing involves integration of online and offline media.) The Savvy Shopper site and complaint form were online for several years without with little or no public attention. However, increased publicity and the NARC involvement were expected to have an impact.
The NARC was formed in 1971 by the Association of National Advertisers, Inc., the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Inc., the American Advertising Federation, Inc., and the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB), Inc. Its purpose is to foster truth and accuracy in national advertising through voluntary self-regulation. The NARC establishes the policies and procedures for the CBBB’s National Advertising Division (NAD), which has been the investigative arm of NARC’s self-regulation program since its inception. The ERSP was originally run by attorney Peter Marinello of NARC and conducted its investigations independently from NAD.
The ERSP program evaluated s the truth and accuracy of “core” claims of the direct response advertisements. It was not set up to deal with financial concerns such as refunds and unauthorized charges.
Between April 2004 and January 2007, the ERSP monitored more than 4,200 advertisements for more than 1,900 products offered through direct response campaigns. By 2007, it had published 125 decisions. In 119 of the cases, the challenged ads were either modified or discontinued. The ERSP complained to the FTC about infomercials for 13 health-related products: 7 Day Miracle Cleanse, AbGONE, Centro Natural de Salud, Hepatol Complex, HoodiaLife, Nexiderm-SP Anti-Wrinkle Formula, Phenterprin HCL, Renuva Anti-Aging System, Rev XP, Sea Vegg Nutritional Supplement, Super Prostate Formula, Ultimate HGH, and Zantrex-3.
In January 2017, the ESRP reported that it had tracked 15,800 informercials., but what happened as a result was not clearly indicated.
The ERSP performed a valuable service, but in in June 2018, the Electronic Retailing Association announced that its dues receipts could no longer meet its expenses and the organization shut down.Hide Full Content